シントピコンの「トピックの見取り図」を和訳してみた(その2)

 本記事では、アイデア=大項目の11~20までの「トピックの見取り図」の和訳を載せている。

 詳しい説明はこちら。

kozakashiku.hatenablog.com

 

—目次—

 

11市民

1国家に対しての個人

2市民権の概念

 2a立憲制の原理に対しての市民権の地位と機能

 2b市民と臣民の区別:立憲君主制における臣民と専制における臣民の区別

 2cさまざまな種類の憲法の下での市民権の性質と範囲

3市民権の制限参政権の範囲

4市民権の権利、義務、特権、免責

5市民の美徳と善人の美徳

6市民権のための教育

7神の国における政治的市民権、会員権

8世界市民権というアイディア:政治的な同胞愛

9市民権をめぐる闘争の歴史的出来事と歴史的段階

 

11 Citizen

「Great Books 1」p175

1.The individual in relation to the state

2.The conception of citizenship

 2a. The status or office of citizenship in relation to the principle of constitutional

government

 2b. The distinction between citizen and subject: the distinction between the subjects of a

constitutional monarchy and of a despotism

 2c. The character and extent of citizenship under different types of constitutions

3.The qualifications for citizenship: extent of suffrage

4.The rights, duties, privileges, and immunities of citizenship

5.The virtues of the citizen and the virtues of the good man

6.Education for citizenship

7.Political citizenship and membership in the city of God

8.The idea of world citizenship: the political brotherhood of man

9.Historical episodes and stages in the struggle for citizenship

 

12憲法

1法の支配と人の支配の違い:立憲制の性質

2憲法の概念

 2a政治共同体の形態や組織としての憲法公職の配置;機能の区別

 2b基礎的な法としての憲法憲法と他の法との関係、合法性と正義の源泉や尺度としての憲法;司法審査

 2c最初の連邦憲法としてのアメリカ合衆国憲法:その前身

3立憲制と他の政体との関係

 3a立憲制と君主制の組み合わせ:混合政体;立憲君主制または制限君主制

 3b王制や混合政体と比較したときの立憲制のメリットと

4政治的な公職憲法上の概念:公職の資格と義務

5各政体の憲法の多様性

 5a様々な憲法の正義:それぞれの憲法の下での市民権の範囲と性質

 5b各種の憲法の混合:その利点

6憲法の起源:立法者、社会契約、憲法制定議会

7憲法の維持:解消に向かう要因

 7a様々な種類の憲法の相対的な安定性

 7b立憲制の保護手段:権利章典;権力分立;弾劾

8憲法の変更

 8a憲法を変更する方法:革命、改正

 8b立憲制の侵犯と転覆

9代表制の理論

 9a代表の機能と義務:選出者との関係

 9b代表制の種類:代表を選出する様々な方法

10立憲制の起源、成長、変遷

 

12 Constitution

「Great Books 1」p189

1.The difference between government by law and government by men: the nature of constitutional government

2.The notion of a constitution

 2a. The constitution as the form or organization of a political community: arrangement of offices; division of functions

 2b. The constitution as the fundamental law: its relation to other laws, as a source or measure of legality or justice; judicial review

 2c. The Constitution of the United States as the first federal constitution: its antecedents

3.The relation of constitutional government to other forms of government

 3a. The combination of constitutional with absolute government: the mixed regime;

constitutional or limited monarchy

 3b. The merits of constitutional government compared with royal government and the

mixed regime

4.The constitutional conception of political office: the qualifications and duties of public

officials

5.The diversity of constitutions among the forms of government

 5a. The justice of different constitutions: the extent and character of citizenship under

each

 5b. The mixed constitution: its advantages

6.The origin of constitutions: the lawgiver, the social contract, the constituent assembly

7.The preservation of constitutions: factors tending toward their dissolution

 7a. The relative stability of different types of constitutions

 7b. The safeguards of constitutional government: bills of rights; separation of powers; impeachment

8.The change of constitutions

 8a. Methods of changing a constitution: revolution, amendment

 8b. The violation and overthrow of constitutional government

9.The theory of representations

 9a.The functions and duties of representatives: their relation to their constituents

 9b.Types of representation: diverse methods of selecting representatives 

10.The origin, growth, and vicissitudes of constitutional government

 

13勇気

1勇気の性質

2勇気に対する悪徳:臆病さ、愚かさ

3勇気の領域における情熱:恐怖、大胆さ、怒り、希望、絶望

4勇気と他の美徳との関係や比較

5勇気の動機:評判、名誉、幸福、愛、義務、宗教的信仰

6勇気ある人間の形成や訓練

7勇気の政治的、市民的な重要性

 7a市民と政治家に求められる勇気:勇気の政治的評価

 7b法と自由に関する勇気

 7c戦争における勇気

 

13 Courage

「Great Books 1」p203

1.The nature of courage

2.The vices opposed to courage: cowardice, foolhardiness

3.The passions in the sphere of courage: fear, daring, anger, hope, despair

4.The relation and comparison of courage with other virtues

5.The motivations of courage: fame or honor, happiness, love, duty, religious faith

6.The formation or training of the courageous man

7.The political or civic significance of courage

 7a.The courage required to citizens and statesmen: the political recognition of courage

 7b.Courage in relation to law and liberty

 7c.Courage in war

 

14慣習としきたり

*1

1自然としきたりの区別:その国家と言語の起源への応用

2慣習の起源、発展、伝播

3慣習の対立:慣習の地域的な差

4慣習の変化:慣習の時期的な差

5道徳的秩序における慣習としきたり

 5a道徳的判断のしきたりによる決定:しきたりの道徳的な評価

 5b人間の育成と性質に対する慣習の影響

6法に関する慣習

 6aしきたりとしての憲法、社会契約、実定法、流儀

 6b法に関する慣習の力

7社会生活における慣習

 7a共同体を統一する慣習:流儀、礼儀における順応性

 7b共同体間の障壁としての慣習

 7c経済的ニーズや基準を決定するものとしての慣習

 7d個人の自由に対する慣習の影響:規律の力

8秩序と進歩に関する慣習:伝統と発明の要因

9慣習の思考に対する影響

 9a意見と信念の源泉としての慣習:慣習の美の判断に対する影響

 9b真実の因習性:公準と、仮説群からの選択

 

14 Custom and Convention

「Great Books 1」p217

1.The distinction between nature and convention: its application to the origin of the state and of language

2.The origin, development, and transmission of customs

3.The conflict of customs: their variation from place to place

4.The change of customs: their variation from time to time

5.Custom and convention in the moral order

 5a. The conventional determination of moral judgments: the moral evaluation of conventions

 5b. The effect of custom on the training and character of men

6.Custom in relation to law

 6a. Constitutions, social contracts, positive laws, and manners as conventions

 6b. The force of custom with respect to law

7.Custom in social life

 7a. Custom as unifying a community: conformity in manners and etiquette

 7b. Custom as a barrier between communities

 7c. Custom as determining economic needs or standards

 7d. The influence of custom on the liberty of the individual: the force of discipline

8.Custom in relation to order and progress: the factors of tradition and invention

9.The bearing of custom on thought

 9a. Custom as a source of opinion and belief: its influence on judgments of beauty

 9b. The conventionality of truth: postulation, choice among hypotheses

 

15定義

1定義の理論

 1a定義の対象:恣意的で名目的な定義、あるいは実在的で本質と関係した定義

 1b定義の目的:アイディアの明確化

 1c定義の限界:定義可能なものと定義不可能なもの

 1d定義されたものの統一性に関する定義の統一性

 1e定義の真実性と虚偽性

2定義や分類のさまざまな方法

 2a定義における分割や二分法の使用

 2b類や差異による定義:性質

 2c非本質的、付属的な表れによる定義、あるいは構成要素による定義:明示的な定義

 2d定義における発生、起源、因果、目的への関心:遺伝的または系統学的な定義

 2e目的や関心を参照した定義

3定義の文法的、言語的な側面

4定義の追求と定義の方法

5定義と論証:原理や結論としての定義

6様々な学問における定義の特徴

 6a物理学、数学、形而上学における定義の役割

 6b思弁的哲学と経験科学における定義の使用

 6c実践哲学、道徳哲学、社会科学における定義の役割

 

15 Definition

「Great Books」p233

1.The theory of definition

 1a. The object of definition: definitions as arbitrary and nominal or real and concerned

with essence

 1b. The purpose of definition: the clarification of ideas

 1c. The limits of definition: the definable and the indefinable

 1d. The unity of a definition in relation to the unity of the thing defined

 1e The truth and falsity of definitions

2.The various methods of definition or classification

 2a. The use of division or dichotomy in definition

 2b. Definition by genus and differentia: properties

 2c. Definition by accidental or extrinsic signs or by component parts: ostensive definition

 2d. The appeal to genesis, origin, cause, or end in definition: genetic or genealogical

definitions

 2e. Definition by reference to purpose or interest

3.The grammatical or verbal aspects of definition

4.The search for definitions and the methods of defending them

5.Definition and demonstration: definitions as principles and as conclusions

6.The character of definitions in diverse disciplines

 6a. The role of definitions in physics, mathematics, and metaphysics

 6b. The use of definition in speculative philosophy and empirical science

 6c. The role of definitions in practical or moral philosophy and the social sciences

 

16民主制

1民主制の概念:民主制と他の政体との比較

2民主制の堕落:自由と平等の無秩序的な傾向

 2a多数派の暴政:無法な暴徒の支配

 2b人々の無能さと指導者の必要性:君主制と貴族制の優位性;扇動者の台頭

3いくつかの良い政体の1つとしての民主主義の受容

 3a民主制的な正義と寡頭制的な正義の比較:貧しい人々と裕福な人々の利益間の妥協としての混合政体

 3b多数者と少数者の政治的知恵の比較:両者を包括する混合政体

 3c効率に関する民主制、貴族制、君主制の比較

4民主制への称賛:理想的状態

 4a法の下での全ての人々の自由と平等

  (1)普通選挙:特権階級の廃止

  (2)経済的な公平性の問題:資本主義と社会主義の選択

 4b国民主権の民主的実現:自然権の保護

 4c実際の民主制の欠陥と、これらの欠陥に対する修正と解決

 4dあらゆる状況下での全ての人間に対する民主制の適合性:民主制に適した条件;民主制への前進

5民主制と代議制

 5a直接民主制、代表制、共和主義、政府の区別:民主制の領域的境界

 5b代表制の理論

  (1)多数決、少数代表制、比例代表制

  (2)選挙権の究極の制限

  (3)選挙と投票の方法

  (4)政党の役割:党派

 5c機能と権力の分配:代表制民主制における抑制と均衡;任命権の利用

6民主制の教育的課題:全ての市民の訓練

7民主制の発展と変遷:発展を支える要因

 7a扇動者と革命の危険性

 7b帝国主義の危険性:属領の扱い

 7c戦争と平和の課題:市民軍

8民主制社会の本質としての結果の平等:人々と制度の性質への影響

 

16 Democracy

「Great Books 1」p246-247

1.Conceptions of democracy: the comparison of democracy with other forms of government

2.The derogation of democracy: the anarchic tendency of freedom and equality

 2a.The tyranny of the majority: lawless mob rule

 2b.The incompetence of the people and the need for leadership: the superiority of monarchy and aristocracy; the rise of the demagogue

3.The acceptance of democracy as one of several good forms of government

 3a.Comparison of democratic and oligarchic justice: the mixed constitution as a compromise between the interests of the poor and rich

 3b.Comparison of the political wisdom of the many and the few: the mixed regime as including both

 3c.Comparison of democracy, aristocracy, and monarchy with respect to efficiency

4.The praise of democracy: the ideal state

 4a.Liberty and equality for all under law

  (1) Universal suffrage: the abolition of privileged classes

  (2) The problem of economic justice: the choice between capitalism and socialism

 4b.The democratic realization of popular sovereignty: the safeguarding of natural rights

 4c.The infirmities of democracy in practice and the reforms or remedies for these defects

 4d.The suitability of democratic constitutions to all men under all circumstances: conditions favorable to democracy progress toward democracy

5.Democracy and representative government

 5a.The distinction between direct democracy and representative, or republican, government: the territorial limits of democracy

 5b.The theory of representation

  (1) Majority rule and minority or proportional representation

  (2) Ultimate limitations on the franchise

  (3) Methods of election and voting

  (4) The role of political parties: factions

 5c.The distribution of functions and powers: checks and balances in representative democracy; the uses of patronage

6.The educational task of democracy: the training of all citizens

7.The growth and vicissitudes of democracy: factors supporting its growth

 7a.Demagoguery and the danger of revolution

 7b.The dangers of imperialism: the treatment of dependencies

 7c.The challenge of war and peace: the citizen army

8.Equality of conditions as the essence of a democratic society: its effect upon the character of the people and its institutions

 

17欲望

1欲望と変化の秩序:エロスとテロス

2欲望や欲求の分析

 2a生理的要求、欠乏、能力の根源:リビドーの本能的な源泉

 2b欲望の対象:善と快

 2c行為の原因欲求:動機、目的、野心;自発性

 2d欲望の満足:所有と享受

3欲望や欲求の形態

 3a自然な欲求:自然や本能によって決定される欲求

 3b知識や判断によって決定される欲求

  (1)感覚的な欲求と合理的な欲求の区別:感情的な傾向と意志のふるまい

  (2)意識的、無意識的な欲望:習慣的な欲求

 3c欲望と愛:区別とつながり

 3d対立的な感情としての欲望と嫌悪

4人間生活における欲望の経済

 4a欲望の相互対立

 4b欲望の付属物:固執、投影、同一化、転移

 4c欲望の焦点:感情の複雑さ

 4d欲望の解放:カタルシスと昇華

5支配者としての欲望

 5a想像力を支配する欲望:空想や幻想

 5b思考を支配的する欲望:合理化と願望に基づいた思考

 5c行動を支配する欲望:欲望の抑制のない表出;自制心のなさ

6支配の対象としての欲望

 6a理由による欲望の規制:倫理的美徳と義務による規律

 6b欲望の抑制、自制:節制、抑制、抑圧

 6c抑圧の結果:夢、象徴的な過剰反応、神経症

7欲望と無限

 7a欲望の際限のなさという傾向

 (1)快の追求

 (2)力の熱望

 (3)富の蓄積

 7b絶え間ない無限の探求:神のビジョンへの欲望

 

17 Desire

「Great Books 1」p261-262

1.Desire and the order of change: eros and telos

2.The analysis of desire or appetite

 2a.The roots of desire in need, privation, or potency: the instinctual sources of the libido

 2b.The objects of desire: the good and the pleasant

 2c.Desire as a cause of action: motivation, purpose, ambition; voluntariness

 2d.The satisfaction of desire: possession and enjoyment

3.The modes of desire or appetite

 3a.Natural appetite: desires determined by nature or instinct

 3b.Desires determined by knowledge or judgement

  (1) The distinction between sensitive and rational desire: emotional tendencies and acts of the will

  (2) Conscious and unconscious desires: habitual desire

 3c. Desire and love: their distinction and connection

 3d. Desire and aversion as emotional opposites

4.The economy of desire in human life

 4a. The conflict of desires with one another

 4b. The attachment of desires: fixations, projections, identifications, transferences

 4c. The focusing of desires: emotional complexes

 4d. The discharge of desires: catharsis and sublimation

5.Desire as ruler

 5a. Desire ruling imagination: daydreaming and fantasy

 5b. Desire ruling thought: rationalization and wishful thinking

 5c. Desire ruling action: the unchecked expression of desires; incontinence

6.Desire as subject to rule

 6a. The regulation of desire by reason: the discipline of moral virtue or duty

 6b. The restraint or renunciation of desire: abstention, inhibition, repression

 6c. The results of repression: dreaming, symbolic overreactions, neuroses

7.Desire and infinity

 7a. The infinite tendency of desires

  (1) The pursuit of pleasure

  (2) The lust for power

  (3) The accumulation of wealth

 7b. The restless search for the infinite: the desire for the vision of God

 

18弁証法

1弁証法の定義

2弁証法の様々な理論

 2a真実の追求と存在の熟考としての弁証法

 (1)あらわれから実在へ、または意見から知識への上昇弁証法の上昇経路、下降経路

 (2)弁証法のための定義、分割、仮説、神話

 2b意見の領域における問い、議論、批判の方法としての弁証法

 (1)弁証法の分割:属性の理論

 (2)問いと答えの技術

 2c偽装の論理としての、または経験を超えた理性の見せかけの使用としての弁証法

 (1)論理の、分析と弁証法への分割:一般的な弁証法と超越的な弁証法の区別

 (2)人間の理性の自然な弁証法:二律背反の解決

 2d精神や物質の進化としての弁証法

 (1)主観的弁証法と客観的弁証法の区別:倫理的意志の認識;信念のパラドックス

 (2)自然と歴史の弁証法:自由の実現

3弁証法的対立の種類

 3a存在と生成の対立、一と多の対立、同と異の対立

 3b弁証法的な論証の対立した前提:対立した前提と弁証法的問題;起こりうることの対立

 3c弁証法的推論の対立した結論:超越的な弁証法の二律背反と背理

 3d弁証法的統合に向けた前進の契機としてのテーゼとアンチテーゼ

4哲学と科学、宗教と文化に関する弁証法

5弁証法と修辞学の領域:証明と説得

6弁証法の評価:弁証法と詭弁の境界線

 

18Dialectic

「Great Books 1」p277-278

1.Definitions of dialectic 

2.Diverse theories of dialectic

 2a. Dialectic as the pursuit of truth and the contemplation of being

  (1) The ascent from appearance to reality, or from opinion to knowledge: the upward

and downward paths of dialectic

  (2) Definition, division, hypothesis, and myth in the service of dialectic

 2b. Dialectic as the method of inquiry, argument, and criticism in the sphere of opinion

  (1) Divisions of dialectic: the theory of the predicables

  (2) The technique of question and answer

 2c. Dialectic as the logic of semblance and as the critique of the illusory employment of

reason beyond experience

  (1) The division of logic into analytic and dialectic: the distinction between general and

transcendental dialectic

  (2) The natural dialectic of human reason: the resolution of antinomies

 2d. Dialectic as the evolution of spirit or matter

  (1) The distinction between subjective and objective dialectic: the realization of the

moral will; the paradoxes of faith

  (2) The dialectic of nature and of history: the actualization of freedom

3.Types of dialectical opposition

 3a. The opposition between being and becoming, the one and the many, the same and the other

 3b.The opposed premises of dialectical argument: dialectical problems and these; the conflict of probabilities

 3c.The opposed conclusions of dialectical reasoning: the antinomies and paralogisms of a transcendental dialectic

 3d.Thesis and antithesis as moments in the advance toward a dialectical synthesis

4.Dialectic in relation to philosophy and science, religion and culture

5.The spheres of dialectic and rhetoric: proof and persuasion

6.The valuation of dialectic: the line between dialectic and sophistry

 

19義務

1義務と責務の概念:その倫理的な重要性

2義務の倫理と幸福、快、功利の倫理との比較

3義務の分割:内的な、または外的な義務;倫理の領域と法の領域

4義務の感覚

 4a良心の倫理的、社会的な発展:良心による命令

 4b良心の感情的な発展:その不健全な現れ

5神定法、自然法、市民法による義務の派生、また理性の定言命法による義務の派生

6多様な由来を持つ義務の間の対立

7義務と正義や権利との関係:宣誓と約束

8義務と本能、欲望、愛の間の緊張関係

9家庭生活における命令と服従の義務

10政治的な義務:関心、機能、忠誠心

11神への義務:信心と崇拝

 

19 Duty

「Great Books 1」p290

1.The concept of duty or obligation: its moral significance

2.Comparison of the ethics of duty with the ethics of happiness, pleasure, or utility

3.the divisions of duty: internal and external duty; the realms of ethics and jurisprudence

4.The sense of duty

 4a.The moral and social development of conscience: its dictates

 4b.The emotional development of conscience: its morbid manifestations

5.The derivation of duty from divine, natural, and civil law, and from the categorical imperative of reason

6.Conflicts between duties of diverse origins

7.The relation of duty to justice and to rights: oaths and promised

8.The tension between duty and instinct, desire, or love

9.The duties of command and obedience in family life

10.Political obligation: cares, functions, loyalties

11.Duty to God: piety and worship

 

20教育

1教育の手段と目的

 1a教育を受けた人の理想

 1b女性の教育

 1c教育を受けることの不利な点

2教育の種類:身体的、倫理的、教養的、専門的、宗教的

3身体の訓練と身体技術の育成:体育、力仕事

4良い人格、美徳、善良な意志の形成:美的趣向の育成

 4a道徳教育の可能性と限界:知識と美徳

 4b道徳心の育成における家族の影響

 4c道徳教育における国家の役割:法律、慣習、世論

 4d詩、音楽、その他の芸術の人格への影響:歴史の役割と例

5教授と学習による精神の進歩

 5a教える職業:教師と学生の関係

 5b教える手段と方法

 5c学習の性質:そのいくつかの形態

 5d学習の順序:カリキュラムの編成

 5e学習の感情的な側面:快、欲望、好奇心

 5f教師や本から切り離された学習:経験の役割

6技術の習得:職業、芸術、専門職への準備

7宗教教育

 7a教える者としての神:神の啓示とインスピレーション

 7b教会、聖職者、預言者の教育機能

8教育と国家

 8a家族と国家の教育的責任

 8b教育機関への経済的支援

 8c教育の政治的規制と検閲

 8d君主、政治家、市民、労働者の訓練:貴族制、民主制における教育の理論

9教育の制度と実践に関する歴史的、伝記的な観察

 

20 Education

「Gerat Books 1」p304

1.The means and ends of education

 1a. The ideal of the educated person

 1b. The education of women

 1c. The disadvantages of being educated

2.The kinds of education: physical, moral, liberal, professional, religious

3.The training of the body and the cultivation of bodily skills: gymnastics, manual work

4.The formation of a good character, virtue, a right will: the cultivation of aesthetic taste

 4a. The possibility and limits of moral education: knowledge and virtue

 4b. The influence of the family in moral training

 4c. The role of the state in moral education: law, custom, public opinion

 4d. The effect upon character of poetry, music, and other arts: the role of history and

examples

5.The improvement of the mind by teaching and learning

 5a. The profession of teaching: the relation of teacher and student

 5b. The means and methods of teaching

 5c. The nature of learning: its several modes

 5d. The order of learning: the organization of the curriculum

 5e. The emotional aspect of learning: pleasure, desire, interest

 5f. Learning apart from teachers and books: the role of experience

6.The acquisition of techniques: preparation for the vocations, arts, and professions

7.Religious education

 7a. God as teacher: divine revelation and inspiration

 7b. The teaching function of the church, of priests and prophets

8.Education and the state

 8a. The educational responsibility of the family and the state

 8b. The economic support of educational institutions

 8c. The political regulation and censorship of education

 8d. The training of the prince, the statesman, the citizen, the proletariat: aristocratic and

democratic theories of education

9.Historical and biographical observations concerning the institutions and practices of

education

*1:このアイデア=大項目では、customを慣習、conventionをしきたりと訳し分けているが、他のアイデア=大項目ではそのような訳し分けは特に行っていない