シントピコンの「トピックの見取り図」を和訳してみた(その5)

 本記事では、アイデア=大項目の41~50までの「トピックの見取り図」の和訳を載せている。

 詳しい説明はこちら。

kozakashiku.hatenablog.com

 

 

 

41判断

1精神の活動や機能としての判断:概念の活動、あるいは理解と理性の能力との対比

2理論的なものと実用的なものの区別に関する判断の区分

3実践的判断や道徳的判断の分析:価値判断;善と悪、手段と目的の判断;定言命法仮言命法

4美的判断と目的論的判断の区別

5理論的判断の性質

 5a判断の言語的表現:文と命題

 5b述語としての判断:主語と述語の分類

 5c関係的なものとしての判断:関係の種類

6形式的な基準に則った理論的判断の区別

 6a量による判断の区別:全称命題、特称命題、単称命題、不定命題

 6b品質による判断の区別:肯定命題、否定命題、無限命題

 6c様式による判断の区別:必然命題と偶然命題;問題のある判断、断定的な判断、明証的な判断

 6d関係を参照した判断の分類:単純な命題と複合的な命題;定言的判断、仮言的判断、選言的判断

7判断の順序とつながり

 7a判断の形式的な対立:対立の四角形

 7b命題の変換:直接推理の問題

 7c判断のつながりとしての推論:推論の連鎖

8発生、根拠、導入による判断の区別

 8a自明で論証可能な命題:直接的な判断と媒介された判断、直感的な判断と合理的な判断

 8b分析的な判断と総合的な判断:無益な命題と有益な命題

 8cアプリオリな判断とアポステリオリな判断、非実在的判断と実在的判断:アプリオリで総合的な判断

 8d判断の、決定的判断と反省的判断への分割:構成的判断と調節的判断

9同意の程度:確実性と確率

10判断の真偽

 

41 Judgement

「Great Books 1」p657

1. Judgment as an act or faculty of the mind: its contrast with the act of conception or with the faculties of understanding and reason

2. The division of judgments in terms of the distinction between the theoretical and the

practical

3.The analysis of practical or moral judgments: value judgments; judgments of good and evil,

means and ends; categorical and hypothetical imperatives

4.The distinction between the aesthetic and the teleological judgment

5.The nature of theoretical judgments

 5a. The linguistic expression of judgments: sentences and propositions

 5b. The judgment as a predication: the classification of subjects and predicates

 5c. The judgment as relational: types of relation

6.The division of theoretical judgments according to formal criteria

 6a. The division of judgments according to quantity: universal, particular, singular, and indefinite propositions

 6b. The division of judgments according to quality: positive, negative, and infinite

propositions

 6c. The division of judgments according to modality: necessary and contingent propositions; problematic, assertoric, and apodictic judgments

 6d. The classification of judgments by reference to relation: simple and composite propositions; categorical, hypothetical, and disjunctive judgments

7.The order and connection of judgments

 7a. The formal opposition of judgments: the square of opposition

 7b. The conversion of propositions: the problem of immediate inference

 7c. Reasoning as a sequence of judgments: the chain of reasoning

8.The differentiation of judgments according to origin, ground, or import

 8a. Self-evident and demonstrable propositions: immediate and mediated, intuitive and reasoned judgments

 8b. Analytic and synthetic judgments: trifling and instructive propositions

 8c. A priori and a posteriori, nonexistential and existential judgments: the problem of a

priori synthetic judgments

 8d. The division of judgments into the determinant and the reflective: judgments as constitutive or as regulative

9. Degrees of assent: certainty and probability

10. The truth and falsity of judgments

 

42正義

1正義の多様な概念

 1a強者の利益、あるいは支配者の意志への順応としての正義

 1b魂の調和または正しい状態としての正義:原始的な正義

 1c他者や共同体に関する行動を導く倫理的美徳としての正義:正しい人と正しい行為の区別

 1d美徳全体としての正義と特定の美徳としての正義:合法と公正の区別

 1e共通善に対する責務を果たす意志や義務の行為としての正義:普遍的な自由の法則の下での、個々の意志の調和のとれた活動

 1f効用の考慮に基づく慣習や倫理的感情としての正義

2正義の表象:善をなすこと、誰にも害を及ぼさないこと、それぞれに礼を尽くすこと、対等なものを対等に扱うこと

3愛と友情の寛大さと比較したときの正義の義務

4正義と方便の比較:不正をなすか不正を被るかの選択;正義と幸福の関係

5正義と平等:平等と不平等の尺度と形態に関する正義の種類

6正義と自由:人権の理論

 6a自然法自然的正義の関係

 6b自然権と積極的な権利、先天的権利と後天的権利、私権と公権の関係:それらに関連する義務

 6c自然権の不可譲性:暴政と専制による侵害

 6d自由と放縦の区別の基礎としての正義

 6e市民的自由の源泉としての正義と自然権

7家庭における正義:家族における権利と義務の問題

8経済における正義:生産、流通、交換における正義

 8a私有財産と公有財産:経済財の公正な分配

 8b公正な賃金と価格:商品とサービスの公正な交換

 8c生産の組織における正義

 (1)経済的な搾取:家財奴隷と賃金奴隷

 (2)利潤と不労所得

 8d正義と金の使用:暴利と金利

9政治的な正義:統治における正義

 9a政治的な正義における自然なものと慣習的なもの:自然法と一般意志

 9b政治組織の倫理的原理としての正義:国家における人間の絆

 9c各形態の政府、また様々な憲法における正義の基準

 9d統治者と被統治者の関係:君主や政治家の正義、臣民や市民の正義

 9e名誉、地位、公職、参政権の公正な分配

 9f国家間の正義:戦争と平和の形成における権利と力の問題

 9g寛容による政治的正義の緩和:恩赦、保護、容赦

10正義と法

 10a国家によって制定された法における正義の尺度:自然の基準と憲法上の基準

 10b不正な法律の適法性:不正な社会において正しい人間に求められる服従の程度

 10c不正な行為に対する処罰の正義:報復と復讐の区別

 10d法的な正義の修正:人間の法の適用における公平性

11神の正義:神や神々と人間の関係

 11a人間の神聖な政府:神や神々の正義と慈悲

 11b神や神々に対する人間の負債:信心と崇拝の宗教的行為

 

42 Justice

「Great Books 1」p670-671

1.Diverse conceptions of justice

 1a. Justice as the interest of the stronger or conformity to the will of the sovereign

 1b. Justice as harmony or right order in the soul: original justice

 1c. Justice as a moral virtue directing activity in relation to others and to the community: the distinction between the just man and the just act

 1d. Justice as the whole of virtue and as a particular virtue: the distinction between the

lawful and the fair

 1e. Justice as an act of will or duty fulfilling obligations to the common good: the harmonious action of individual wills under a universal law of freedom

 1f. Justice as a custom or moral sentiment based on considerations of utility

2.The precepts of justice: doing good, harming no one, rendering to each his own, treating equals equally

3. The duties of justice compared with the generosity of love and friendship

4. The comparison of justice and expediency: the choice between doing and suffering injustice; the relation of justice to happiness

5. Justice and equality: the kinds of justice in relation to the measure and modes of equality and inequality

6. Justice and liberty: the theory of human rights

 6a. The relation between natural law and natural justice

 6b. The relation between natural and positive rights, innate and acquired rights, private and public rights: their correlative duties

 6c. The inalienability of natural rights: their violation by tyranny and despotism

 6d. Justice as the basis for the distinction between liberty and license

 6e. Justice and natural rights as the source of civil liberty

7. Domestic justice: the problems of right and duty in the family

8. Economic justice: justice in production, distribution, and exchange

 8a. Private and public property: the just distribution of economic goods

 8b. Fair wages and prices: the just exchange of goods and services 

 8c. Justice in the organization of production

  (1) Economic exploitation: chattel slavery and wage slavery

  (2) Profit and unearned increment

 8d. Justice and the use of money: usury and interest rates

9. Political justice: justice in government

 9a. The natural and the conventional in political justice: natural law and the general will

 9b. Justice as the moral principle of political organization: the bond of men in states

 9c. The criteria of justice in various forms of government and diverse constitutions

 9d. The relation of ruler and ruled: the justice of the prince or statesman and of the subject or citizen

 9e. The just distribution of honors, ranks, offices, suffrage

 9f. Justice between states: the problem of right and might in the making of war and peace

 9g. The tempering of political justice by clemency: amnesty, asylum, and pardon

10. Justice and law

 10a. The measure of justice in laws made by the state: natural and constitutional standards

 10b. The legality of unjust laws: the extent of obedience required of the just man in the unjust society

 10c. The justice of punishment for unjust acts: the distinction between retribution and vengeance

 10d. The correction of legal justice: equity in the application of human law

11. Divine justice: the relation of God or the gods to man

 11a. The divine government of man: the justice and mercy of God or the gods

 11b. Man’s debt to God or the gods: the religious acts of piety and worship

 

43知識

1知識の性質:知るものと知られるものの関係;知識の表象的、志向的な性格に関する問題

2人間の知を求める自然な欲望と能力

3知識の原理

4精神の異なった状態に関する知識

 4a知識と真実:知識、誤り、無知の区別

 4b知識、信念、意見:それらの関係や区別

 4c知識、幻想、想像の違い

 4d知識と愛

5人間の知識の範囲や限界

 5a知り得ること、知り得ないこと、まだ知らないこと:ある物事の可知性

 (1)知識の対象としての神

 (2)知識の対象としての物質と非物質的なもの

 (3)知識の対象としての原因と実体

 (4)知識の対象としての無限なものと分割不可能なもの

 (5)知識の対象としての過去と未来

 (6)知識の対象としての自我と物自体

 5bそれ自体がよりよく知り得ることと、我々がよりよく知り得ることの区別

 5c人間の知識の範囲、確実性、究極性に対する独断主義、懐疑主義、批判的態度

 5d知識の前提条件としての普遍的な懐疑の方法:我々の知力の真実性の保証としての神の善性

 5e知識に対する主張の評価基準の源泉としての、知識に関する知識

6知識の種類

 6a対象の多様性による知識の分類

 (1)知識の対象としての、存在と生成変化、理解可能なものと感覚可能なもの、必然的なものと偶然的なもの、永遠のものと一時的なもの、非物質的なものと物質的なもの

 (2)個別のものについての知識と区別される、性質や種類についての知識

 (3)我々のアイデアやそれらの関係についての知識と区別される、現実的なものや実在についての知識

 (4)現象的なものと実体的なもの、感覚可能なものと超感覚的なものの区別に関する知識

 6b知識に関する能力による知識の分類

 (1)感覚的な知識:知識としての感覚的な知覚;知覚の判断と経験の判断;私的な知識と公共的な知識

 (2)知識としての記憶

 (3)合理的知識や知的知識:合理主義

 (4)理解、判断、および理由の能力に関する知識;直感、想像、理解の働きに関する知識

 6c知識を得る方法や手段による知識の分類

 (1)推論的知識と区別される、洞察、熟慮、直観的な知識:経験による知識(直接知)と記述による知識(間接知)

 (2)直接判断と間接判断の区別:帰納と推論、原理と結論

 (3)想起されるものとしての知識の教義:生得的な知識と獲得された知識の区別

 (4)アプリオリな知識とアポステリオリな知識の区別:超越的知識、思弁的知識、経験的知識

 (5)自然な知識と超自然的な知識の区別:信仰による知識や、神の恵み、インスピレーションを通した知識とは区別される、感覚や理性に基づく知識

 6d合意の程度による知識の分類

 (1)確実な知識と蓋然的な知識の区別

 (2)確実性の種類と蓋然性の程度

 (3)十分な知識と不十分な知識、または完全な知識と不完全な知識の区別

 6e知識の目的や目標による知識の分類

 (1)理論的知識と実践的知識の区別:知識のために知識を得ることと、活動や生産のために知識を得ること

 (2)実践的知識の種類:生産と、行動の方向づけにおける知識の使用;技術的知識と道徳的知識

7人間の知識と他の種類の知識の比較

 7a人間の知識と神の知識

 7b人間の知識と天使の知識

 7c前世や来世での知識の比較したときの、今世での知識

 7d人間の知識と獣の知識

8知識の利用と価値

 8a生産の分野における知識の技術的な利用:技術における科学の応用

 8b知識の倫理的使用と知識の倫理的価値

 (1)善と悪の知識:知識と、美徳と罪の関係

    (2)行動の自主性の条件としての知識

  (3)慎重さと一貫性に関する知識

  (4)善や満足としての知識の所有や追求:その快と苦との関係;幸福への寄与

 8c知識の政治的利用:政治家、立法者、市民に求められる知識;イデオロギーの役割;ジャーナリズム

9知識の伝達

 9a知識を伝達する手段と方法:伝達不可能な知識

 9b知識の普及の価値:議論の自由;秘密の利用

10人間の知識の発展:知識の追求における人間の進歩と失敗の歴史

 

43 Knowledge

「Great Books 1」p690-692

1.The nature of knowledge: the relation between knower and known; the issue concerning representative or intentional character of knowledge

2. Man's natural desire and power to know

3. Principles of knowledge

4. Knowledge in relation to other states of mind

 4a. Knowledge and truth: the differentiation of knowledge, error, and ignorance

 4b. Knowledge, belief, and opinion: their relation or distinction

 4c. The distinction between knowledge and fancy or imagination

 4d. Knowledge and lovely

5. The extent or limits of human knowledge

 5a. The knowable, the unknowable, and the unknown: the knowability of certain objects

  (1) God as an object of knowledge

  (2) Matter and the immaterial as objects of knowledge

  (3) Cause and substance as objects of knowledge

  (4) The infinite and the individual as objects of knowledge

  (5) The past and the future as objects of knowledge

  (6) The self and the thing in itself as objects of knowledge

 5b. The distinction between what is more knowable in itself and what is more knowable to us

 5c. Dogmatism, skepticism, and the critical attitude with respect to the extent, certainty, and finality of human knowledge

 5d. The method of universal doubt as prerequisite to knowledge: God's goodness as the assurance of the veracity of our faculties

 5e. Knowledge about knowledge as the source of criteria for evaluating claims to knowledge

6. The kinds of knowledge

 6a. The classification of knowledge according to diversity of objects 

  (1) Being and becoming, the intelligible and the sensible, the necessary and the contingent, the eternal and the temporal, the immaterial and the material as objects of knowledge there

  (2) Knowledge of natures or kinds distinguished from knowledge of individuals

  (3) Knowledge of matters of fact or real existence distinguished from knowledge of our ideas or of the relations between them

  (4) Knowledge in relation to the distinction between the phenomenal and the noumenal, the sensible and supra-sensible

 6b. The classification of knowledge according to the faculties involved in knowing

  (1) Sensitive knowledge: sense perception as knowledge; judgments of perception and judgments of experience; private and public knowledge

  (2) Memory as knowledge

  (3) Rational or intellectual knowledge: rationalism

  (4) Knowledge in relation to the faculties of understanding, judgment, and reason; and

to the work of intuition, imagination, and understanding

 6c. The classification of knowledge according to the methods or means of knowing

  (1) Vision, contemplation, or intuitive knowledge distinguished from discursive knowledge: knowledge by acquaintance and knowledge by description

  (2) The distinction between immediate and mediated judgments: induction and reason

ing, principles and conclusions

  (3) The doctrine of knowledge as reminiscence: the distinction between innate and

acquired knowledge

  (4) The distinction between a priori and a posteriori knowledge: the transcendental, or

speculative, and the empirical

  (5) The distinction between natural and supernatural knowledge: knowledge based on sense or reason distinguished from knowledge by faith or through grace and inspiration

 6d. The classification of knowledge according to the degrees of assent

  (1) The distinction between certain and probable knowledge

  (2) The types of certainty and the degrees of probability

  (3) The distinction between adequate and inadequate, or perfect and imperfect knowledge

 6e. The classification of knowledge according to the end or aim of the knowing

  (1) The distinction between theoretical and practical knowledge: knowing for the sake

of knowledge and for the sake of action or production

  (2) The types of practical knowledge: the use of knowledge in production and in the direction of conduct; technical and moral knowledge

7. Comparison of human with other kinds of knowledge

 7a. Human and divine knowledge

 7b. Human and angelic knowledge

 7c Knowledge in this life compared with knowledge in the state of innocence and knowledge hereafter

 7d The knowledge of men and brutes

8. The use and value of knowledge

 8a. The technical use of knowledge in the sphere of production: the applications of science in art

 8b The moral use of knowledge and the moral value of knowledge

  (1) The knowledge of good and evil: the relation of knowledge to virtue and sin

  (2) Knowledge as a condition of voluntariness in conduct

  (3) Knowledge in relation to prudence and consistence

  (4) The possession or pursuit of knowledge as a good or satisfaction: its relation to pleasure and pain; its contribution to happiness

 8c. The political use of knowledge: the knowledge requisite for statesmen, legislator, or citizen; the role of ideology; journalism

9. The communication of knowledge

 9a. The means and methods of communicating knowledge: incommunicable knowledge

 9b. The value of the dissemination of knowledge: freedom of discussion; the use of secrecy

10. The growth of human knowledge: the history of men’s progress and failures in the pursuit of knowledge

 

44労働

1人間生活における労働

 1a労働の呪い:黄金時代の神話と世界の衰退

 1b労働、余暇、幸福:奴隷的な生活、政治的な生活、観想的な生活

 1c労働の苦痛と罪の贖い:労働の規律や罰としての使用

 1d労働の社会的必要性と、働くという倫理的義務

 1e働くことの名誉と生産力の美徳:自然の制御のための技術の発明を通した進歩

 1f労働の劣化:家財奴隷、農奴、産業賃金奴隷における労働者の仕事の疎外

2仕事の性質

 2a仕事の目的:生産物の善性と労働者の善性

 2b仕事の過程:技術、人手、機械、物質の関係

3仕事の種類と様々な種類の労働者の関係

 3a求められる才能や能力による仕事の区別:熟練労働者と非熟練労働者;肉体労働と頭脳労働;労働者と使用者

 3b労働者の社会的地位による仕事の区別:奴隷の労働と自由民の労働、また卑しい仕事と立派な仕事

 3c仕事に伴う身体的、精神的な状況による職業の分類:健全な職業と不健全な職業;楽しい仕事と不快な仕事

 3d作業が行われる方法によって区別される仕事の種類:単独作業とグループ作業;親方と助手の関係

 3e富の増加への影響によって区別される仕事の種類:生産的な労働と非生産的な労働

 3f社会全体の厚生との関係による仕事の区別:社会的に有用な仕事と無駄で余分な仕事

4分業

 4a分業の経済的な原因と結果:商品およびサービスの交換、生産、分配との関係;富裕さとの関係

 4b分業の社会的な帰結:階級の発展

 4c分業の倫理的な側面:技術の美徳の獲得;取るに足らない仕事による技術の衰退

5生産の組織:様々な経済における労働の位置

 5a奴隷経済における家庭内奴隷や家財奴隷

 5b封建経済における農奴や農業債務奴隷

 5c資本主義経済における賃金稼ぎ手または産業プロレタリアート:雇用全体に影響を与える要因

 5d社会主義経済における労働者の状況

6労働の賃金:賃金支払いの種類

 6a商品としての労働:労働市場

 6b賃金鉄則:最低生活水準と最低賃金

 6c実質賃金と名目賃金の区別:賃金水準に影響を与える可変要因;賃金水準が雇用に与える影響

 6d労働の自然賃金と労働価値説

7労働者に対する経済的正義と政治的正義

 7a公正な賃金、労働時間、労働条件:労働法規

 7b財産権:生産手段の所有権

 7c経済的な不平等や抑圧の帰結:階級闘争

 (1)敵対的な社会階級の経済的な決定:奴隷vs自由民;労働者階級vs有閑階級;無産階 級と有産階級

 (2)労働者の組織と、労働者の権利と利益を保護するための労働組合の結成

 (3)革命をもたらす階級としてのプロレタリア階級:その革命の目的

 7d労働者の貧困状況:奴隷の市民からの排除;労働者階級の公民権の剥奪

 7e貧乏と貧困の問題:失業と労働権

 7f経済的自由と政治的自由の関係:経済民主主義

8労働状況に関する歴史やフィクションの観察

 

44 Labor

「Great Books 1」p716-717

1. Labor in human life

 1a. The curse of labor: myths of a golden age and the decay of the world

 1b. Labor, leisure, and happiness: the servile, political, and contemplative life

 1c. The pain of labor and the expiation of sin: the disciplinary and penal use of labor

 1d. The social necessity of labor and the moral obligation to work

 1e. The honor of work and the virtue of productivity: progress through the invention of arts for the conquest of nature

 1f. The degradation of labor: the alienation of the laborer’s work in chattel slavery, serfdom, and industrial wage slavery

2. The nature of work

 2a. The ends of work: the good of the product and the good of the workman

 2b. The process of work: the relations of art, hand, machine, and matter

3. The kinds of work and the relationship of different types of workers

 3a. The differentiation of work according to the human talent or ability required: skilled and unskilled labor; manual and mental work; labor and management

 3b. The differentiation of work according to the social status of the worker: servile and free, menial and honorable work

 3c. The classification of occupations by reference to bodily and mental concomitants of

the work: healthy and unhealthy occupations; pleasant and unpleasant tasks

 3d. Types of work distinguished by reference to the manner in which the work is done: solitary and group work; the relation of master craftsmen and helpers

 3e. Types of work distinguished by reference to their effect on the increase of wealth: productive and nonproductive labor

 3f. The differentiation of work in terms of its relation to the common welfare: socially useful and wasteful or superfluous work

4.The division of labor

 4a. The economic causes and effects of the division of labor: its relation to the exchange,

production, and distribution of goods and services; its bearing on opulence

 4b. The social consequences of the division of labor: the development of classes

 4c. The moral aspects of the division of labor: the acquisition of the virtue of art; the

attenuation of art by insignificant tasks

5. The organization of production: the position of labor in different economies

 5a. Domestic or chattel slavery in a slave economy

 5b. Serfdom or agrarian peonage in a feudal economy

 5c. The wage earner or industrial proletariat in a capitalist economy: factors affecting

overall employment

 5d. The condition of the worker in a socialist economy

6. The wages of labor: kinds of wage payments

 6a. Labor as a commodity: the labor market

 6b. The iron law of wages: the subsistence level and the minimum wage

 6c. The distinction between real and nominal wages: variable factors affecting wage levels; the effect of wage levels on employment

 6d. The natural wages of labor and the labor theory of value 

7. Economic and political justice to the laborer

 7a. Fair wages, hours, and working conditions: labor legislation

 7b. The right to property: the ownership of the means of production

 7c. The consequences of economic inequality or oppression: the class war

  (1) The economic determination of antagonistic social classes: slaves versus freemen; laboring versus leisure classes; propertyless versus propertied classes

  (2) The organization of workmen and the formation of trade unions to protect labor's

rights and interests

  (3) The proletariat as a revolutionary class: its revolutionary aims

 7d. The underprivileged condition of workers: the exclusion of slaves from citizenship; the disfranchisement of the laboring classes

 7e. The problem of poverty and pauperism: unemployment and the right to work

 7f. The relation of economic to political freedom: economic democracy

8. Historical and fictional observations on the condition of labor

 

45言語

1言語の性質と機能:人間の言語と獣の言語

 1a思考と行動における言語の役割

 1b社会における言語の貢献:言語形式と社会構造

2言語の起源の理論

 2a全人類のための単一の自然言語あったという仮説

 2b慣習的な言語の発生:アルファベットの起源

3言語の発展

 3a言語の獲得:言葉の発明と意味の増殖

 3b言語の発展における話し言葉と書き言葉

 3c言語の伝統と生命:言語ゲーム

4文法の技巧

 4a統語論:発話の部分と単位

 4b言語の使用における正確さの基準:文法上の誤り

5言語の不完全性:コミュニケーションの失敗

 5a言葉の乱用:曖昧さ、不正確さ、不明瞭さ;政治的な動機による言語の腐敗

 5bつまらない発話:無意味さ、ばかげた言葉

 5c現実の記述に言語の使用の難しさ

6言語の改善:完璧な言語の理想

7文法と論理:知識の定式化と表明

8文法とレトリック:教育と説得における言語の効果的な利用

9詩の言語:言語による詩人の魅了

10物事や出来事の言語:自然の本;夢の象徴性;予言的なしるし

11直接的なコミュニケーション:天使の発話と異言

12神や神々の言語:神の言葉の公表;神聖な書物のインスピレーション、啓示、解釈

 

45 Language

「Great Books 1」p734

1.The nature and functions of language: the speech of men and brutes

 1a. The role of language in thought and behavior

 1b. The service of language to society: linguistic forms and social structure

2. Theories of the origin of language

 2a. The hypothesis of one natural language for all men

 2b. The genesis of conventional languages: the origin of alphabets

3. The growth of language

 3a. The acquisition of language: the invention of words and the proliferation of  meanings

 3b. The spoken and written word in the development of language

 3c. Tradition and the life of languages: language games

4. The art of grammar

 4a. Syntax: the parts and units of speech

 4b. Standards of correctness in the use of language: grammatical errors

5. The imperfections of language: failures in communication

 5a. The abuse of words: ambiguity, imprecision, obscurity; the corruption of language for political motives

 5b. Insignificant speech: meaninglessness, absurdity

 5c. The difficulties of using language in the describing of reality

6.The improvement of speech: the ideal of a perfect language

7.Grammar and logic: the formulation and statement of knowledge

8. Grammar and rhetoric: the effective use of language in teaching and persuasion

9. The language of poetry: the poet's enchantment with language

10. The language of things and events: the book of nature; the symbolism of dreams; prophetic signs

11. Immediate communication: the speech of angels and the gift of tongues

12. The language of God or the gods: the deliverances of the oracles; the inspiration, revelation, and interpretation of Sacred Scripture

 

46法

1法の定義

 1a法の目的:平和、秩序、共通善

 1b理由や意志に関する法律

 1c法を制定するために必要な権威と権力

 1d法の公布:発表の必要性と方法

2主要な種類の法:人間法、自然法、神定法の比較;自然権実定的権利、生得的な権利と獲得された権利、私的な権利と公的な権利、抽象的権利と公民権の比較

3神定法

 3a神による宇宙の統治における永遠の法:全ての生物の性質における法

 (1)人間の性質における永遠の法としての倫理的な自然法

 (2)永遠の法と神の実定的な戒律の区別

 3b神の実定法:旧約聖書新約聖書で啓示された法の違い

 (I)旧約聖書における法:旧法の道徳的、司法的、儀式的戒律

 (2)新約聖書における法:愛と恵みの法;新法の儀式的戒律

4自然法

 4a理性の法または倫理の法:その原理の秩序と習慣

 4b自然状態における人間の法

 4c生得的権利や抽象的権利のアプリオリな原理:自由の秩序にける普遍的な法;意志の客体化

 4d美徳の戒律の根底にある自然法:神定法の倫理的戒律との関係

 4e自然法自然権、自然的正義の関係

 4f自然法と市民法、国内法の関係:自然状態と市民の状態の規則

 4g自然法と国家法、国際法の関係:主権国家と自然状態

 4h奴隷と財産に関する、自然法の戒律と自然状態の条件

5人間法、あるいは実定法:強制力による制裁

 5a法と命令の違い

 5b実定法の種類や区分

 5c実定法の正義:自然法と合憲性の基準

 5d立法過程における実定法の発生:立法者の機能

 5e実定法の可変性や変動性:法の維持や変更

 5f実定法と慣習の関係

 5g事例への実定法の適用:司法プロセスの決疑論;裁判の実施;司法行政

 5h実定法の欠陥:公平性による修正や免除の必要性

6法と個人

 6a法の権威と権力への服従:良心と恐怖の制裁;法の客観的な制裁と主観的な制裁;法、義務、権利

 6b主権者に対する法の強制執行の免除

 6c 暴政的な法、不正な法、悪しき法の力:反逆や不服従の権利

 6d美徳と悪徳に関する法の教育的機能:各市民の美徳によって制限されるものとしての法の有効性

 6e法の違反:犯罪と処罰

 (1)犯罪の性質と原因

 (2)犯罪の防止

 (3)犯罪の処罰

7法と国家

 7a人の支配と法の支配の区別:憲法と政治的な法の性質

 7b政治的な自由の原理としての法の優越

 7c市民法に対する自然法の優位:自然権の不可侵性や不可譲性

 7d違法行為としてのの暴政、反乱、扇動:権限のない武力の行使

 7e法によって決定されていない問題における行政の指示の必要性:国王の大権

 7f法における人の概念:国や他の団体の法人格

8法の発展と法体系や法制度の多様性の歴史的観察

9法曹と法学:弁護士と裁判官への称賛と非難

 

46 Law

「Great Books 1」p751-752

1. The definition of law

 1a. The end of law: peace, order, and the common good

 1b. Law in relation to reason or will

 1c. The authority and power needed for making law

 1d. The promulgation of law: the need and the manner of its declaration

2. The major kinds of law: comparison of human, natural, and divine law; comparison of natural and positive, innate and acquired, private and public, abstract and civil rights

3. The divine law

 3a. The eternal law in the divine government of the universe: the law in the nature of all creatures

  (1) The natural moral law as the eternal law in human nature

  (2) The distinction between the eternal law and the positive commandments of God

 3b. The divine positive law: the difference between the law revealed in the Old and the New Testament

  (I) Law in the Old Testament: the moral, the judicial, and the ceremonial precepts of the Old Law

  (2) Law in the New Testament: the law of love and grace; ceremonial precepts of the New Law

4. The natural law

 4a. The law of reason or the moral law: the order and habits of its principles

 4b. The law of men living in a state of nature

 4c. The a priori principles of innate or abstract right: universal law in the order of freedom; the objectification of the will

 4d. The natural law as underlying the precepts of virtue: its relation to the moral precepts of divine law

 4e. The relation of natural law to natural rights and natural justice

 4f. The relation of natural law to civil or municipal law: the state of nature and the regulations of the civil state

 4g. The relation of natural law to the law of nations and to international law: sovereign states and the state of nature

 4h. The precepts of the natural law and the condition of the state of nature with respect to slavery and property

5. The human or positive law: the sanction of coercive force

 5a. The difference between laws and decrees

 5b. The kinds or divisions of positive law

 5c. The justice of positive law: the standards of natural law and constitutionality

 5d. The origins of positive law in the legislative process: the function of the legislator

 5e. The mutability or variability of positive law: the maintenance or change of laws

 5f. The relation of positive law to custom

 5g. The application of positive law to cases: the casuistry of the judicial process; the conduct of a trial; the administration of justice

 5h. The defect of positive law: its need for correction or dispensation by equity

6. Law and the individual

 6a. Obedience to the authority and force of law: the sanctions of conscience and fear;  the objective and subjective sanctions of law; law, duty, and right

 6b. The exemption of the sovereign person from the coercive force of law

 6c. The force of tyrannical, unjust, or bad laws: the right of rebellion or disobedience

 6d. The educative function of law in relation to virtue and vice: the efficacy of law as limited by virtue in the individual citizen

 6e. The breach of law: crime and punishment

  (1) The nature and causes of crime

  (2) The prevention of crime

  (3) The punishment of crime

7. Law and the state

 7a. The distinction between government by men and government by laws: the nature of

constitutional or political law

 7b. The supremacy of law as the principle of political freedom

 7c. The priority of natural to civil law: the inviolability or inalienability of natural rights

 7d. Tyranny and treason or sedition as illegal acts: the use of force without authority

 7e. The need for administrative discretion in matters undetermined by law: the royal prerogative

 7f. The juridical conception of the person: the legal personality of the state and other corporations

8. Historical observations on the development of law and on the diversity of legal systems or institutions

9. The legal profession and the study of law: praise and dispraise of lawyers and judges

 

47自由

1自然な自由と政治的な自由

 1a自由の生得権

 1b自然状態や無政府状態における人間の独立と主権者の自治

 1c自由と自由意志の関係:干渉からの自由としての、あるいは個人の発達のための自由としての、自由の概念

 1d政治的な自由の条件としての法の優位

 1e正義による自由の制限:自由と放縦の区別

 1f政府の下での対等な人間の自由:市民権の平等性

 1g自由の法的保護:権利章典;権力分立

 1h各形態の政府の下での市民の自由

2市民の自由の問題

 2a思想と表現の自由:検閲の問題;秘密の使用

 2b良心の自由と信教の自由

 2c経済活動の領域における自由:自由貿易;政府の規制からの自由

 2d市民的な自由の制限としての経済的依存:経済的な奴隷や経済的従属

3倫理的な自由や精神的な自由

 3a人間の束縛、あるいは感情の支配

 3b人間の自由や、理性の法則:真実の知識を通じた自由

 3c自由な選択の規律としての美徳:実践理性の倫理的な法による意志の決定としての自由

 3d葛藤からの自由と、幸福の条件としての個人の自由

4自由の形而上学

 4a人間の自由と運や偶然性の関係

 4b自由の反対:因果性や必然性、自然、法

5自由の技術

 5a運命や神の意志に関する人間の自由

 5b人間の自由と神の知識

 5c人間の自由と神の恵み:神の子供たちの自由

 5d神の自由:無限の存在の独立性や自律性;神の選択

6歴史と文学における自由

 6a自由の歴史的重要性:自由の実現の諸段階;歴史的過程の始まりと終わり

 6b市民的な自由と経済的な自由を求める闘争と欲望:暴政、専制、抑圧者の転覆

 6c帝国主義や植民地支配の縛りつけに対する、主権独立のための闘争

 

47 Liberty

「Great Books 1」p772-773

1.Natural freedom and political liberty

 1a. The birthright of freedom

 1b. The independence of men and the autonomy of sovereigns in a state of nature or anarchy

 1c. The relation of liberty to free will: the conceptions of liberty as freedom from interference and freedom for personal development

 1d. The supremacy of law as a condition of political liberty

 1eThe restriction of freedom by justice: the distinction between liberty and license

 1f. The freedom of equals under government: the equality of citizenship

 1g. The juridical protection of liberties: bills of rights; the separation of powers

 1h. Civil liberty under diverse forms of government

2. The issues of civil liberty to

 2a. Freedom of thought and expression: the problem of censorship; the uses of secrecy

 2b. Liberty of conscience and religious freedom

 2c. Freedom in the sphere of economic enterprise: free trade; freedom from governmental restrictions

 2d. Economic dependence as a limitation of civil liberty: economic slavery or subjection

3. Moral or spiritual freedom

 3a. Human bondage, or the dominance of the passions

 3b. Human freedom or the rule of reason: freedom through knowledge of the truth

 3c. Virtue as the discipline of free choice: freedom as the determination of the will by the moral law of practical reason

 3d. Freedom from conflict and freedom for individuality as conditions of happiness

4. The metaphysics of freedom

 4a. The relation of human liberty to chance and contingency

 4b The opposites of freedom: causality or necessity, nature, and law

5. The technology of freedom

 5a. Man’s freedom in relation to fate or to the will of God

 5b. Man’s freedom and God’s knowledge

 5c. Man’s freedom and God’s grace: the freedom of the children of God

 5d. The divine freedom: the independence or autonomy of infinite being; divine choice

6. Liberty in history and literature

 6a. The historical significance of freedom: stages in the realization of freedom; the beginning and end of the historical process

 6b. The struggle and desire for civil liberty and economic freedom: the overthrow of tyrants, despots, and oppressors

 6c. The struggle for sovereign independence against the yoke of imperialism or colonial subjugation

 

48生と死

1生命の性質と原因:有機体における生命の原理としての魂

2生物と非生物の間の連続性と不連続性:生命の力と活動の、不活性体の潜勢力や運動との比較

3肉体的生命の形態や段階:様々な生命の力や機能の分類と順序

 3a植物と動物の間の連続性と不連続性:植物と動物の栄養、呼吸、成長、生殖の比較

 3b動物の生活の段階:可動性や感度の種類と程度;構造と機能のアナロジー

4生態系における生物学的経済:生命体の環境;植物と動物の相互依存

5正常な生命力と、病気、変性、老化に伴う衰弱によるその減損

 5a健康の性質と原因:肉体的な美

 5b休息や睡眠の回復機能

 5c病気の性質と原因

6寿命とライフサイクル

 6a植物や動物、あるいは植物や動物における多様な種の寿命

 6b人間の寿命

 6c人生の諸段階の生物学的な、または心理的な特徴

7死の原因と生起:生から死への移行;殺人

8生命の、生と死への関心

 8a生と死についての省察

 8b生命の愛:自己保存の本能;生命の本能

 8c死への欲望:死の本能;自殺の問題

 8d死への恐怖:英雄、哲学者、詩人、殉教者の態度

 8e死の儀式:戦争と平和における葬儀

 

48 Life and Death

「Great Books 1」p790

1. The nature and cause of life: the soul as the principle of life in organic bodies

2. Continuity or discontinuity between living and nonliving things: comparison of vital powers and activities with the potentialities and motions of inert bodies

3. The modes or grades of corporeal life: the classification and order of the various vital powers or functions

 3a. Continuity or discontinuity between plants and animals: comparison of plant and animal nutrition, respiration, growth, and reproduction

 3b. The grades of animal life: types and degrees of mobility and sensitivity; analogies of structure and function

4. The biological economy in ecological systems: the environment of the organism; the interdependence of plants and animals

5. Normal vitality and its impairment by disease, degeneration, and enfeeblement with age

 5a. The nature and causes of health: physical beauty

 5b. The restorative function of rest or sleep

 5c. The nature and causes of disease

6. The life span and the life cycle

 6a. The life span of plants and animals, and of different species of plants and animals

 6b. The human life span

 6c. The biological and psychological characteristics of the stages of life

7. The causes and occurrence of death: the transition from life to death; homicide

8. The concern of the living with life and death

 8a. Reflections about life and death

 8b. The love of life: the instinct of self-preservation; the life instinct

 8c. The desire for death: the death instinct; the problem of suicide

 8d. The fear of death: the attitude of the hero, the philosopher, the poet, the martyr

 8e. The ceremonials of death: the rites of burial in war and peace

 

49論理

1科学としての論理:心理学、形而上学と比較した際の、論理学の範囲と主題

 1a論理の原理:思考の法則;推論の原理

 1b論理の分割:演繹的と帰納的;形式的と実質的;分析的と弁証法的;一般的と超越的

2超越的な論理:全てのアプリオリな認識への準備;方法の超越的な教義

3数理論理学と記号論理学

4技術としての論理:教育におけるその位置

 4a論理と文法の関係

 4b論理とレトリックの関係

5方法論:思考、学習、探求、知識獲得の過程における精神の活動の規則

 5a数学的な分析と推論:普遍的な方法の探求

 5b実験科学と経験科学の研究において発見を導く原理(ヒューリスティックス)

 5c歴史的な探究における証拠と推論の基準

 5d思弁的な哲学の様々な方法:直観、分析、弁証法発生学、超越的な批判の役割

 5e実践的な思考の論理:倫理学政治学、法学の方法

 5f神学的な議論:信仰、理性、権威の役割

6風刺と批判の対象としての論理:詭弁と屁理屈

 

49 Logic

「Great Books 1」p806

1.Logic as a science: its scope and subject matter compared with psychology and metaphysics

 1a. The axioms of logic: the laws of thought; the principles of reasoning

 1b. Divisions of logic: deductive and inductive; formal and material; analytic and dialectic; general and transcendental

2. Transcendental logic: the propaedeutic to all a priori cognition; the transcendental doctrine of method

3. Mathematical and symbolic logic

4. Logic as an art: its place in education

 4a. The relation of logic and grammar

 4b. The relation of logic and rhetoric

5. Methodology: rules for the conduct of the mind in the processes of thinking, learning, inquiring, knowing

 5a. Mathematical analysis and reasoning: the search for a universal method

 5b. The heuristic principles of research in experimental and empirical science

 5c. The criteria of evidence and inference in historical inquiry

 5d. The diverse methods of speculative philosophy: the role of intuition, analysis, dialectic, genetic or transcendental criticism

 5e. The logic of practical thinking: the methods of ethics, politics, and jurisprudence

 5f. Theological argument: the roles of faith, reason, and authority

6. Logic as an object of satire and criticism: sophistry and logic-chopping

 

50愛

1愛の本質

  1a愛と憎しみの概念:熱情としての、あるいは意志の行為としての

  1b愛と憎しみの相互関係、また快と苦に関する愛と憎しみ

  1c愛と欲望の区別:思いやりある目的と獲得したいという目的

  1d愛の目的と対象

  1e愛の強さと力:その増大と減少;その建設的な力と破壊的な力

  1f憎しみの強さ:羨望と嫉妬

2愛の種

  2a肉欲や性的な欲望とは区別されるものとしてのエロティックな愛

   (1)性的な本能:他の本能との関係

   (2)乳児のセクシュアリティ:多形倒錯

   (3)対象の固定、同一化、転移:昇華

   (4)愛の倒錯、劣化、病理:幼児の愛と大人の愛

  2b友好的な愛、親切な愛、利他的な愛:友愛

   (1)愛と友情の関係

   (2)他者の愛に関する自己愛:虚栄心と自己利益

 

50 Love

「Great Books 1」p819-820

1. The nature of love

 1a. Conceptions of love and hate: as passions and as acts of will

 1b. Love and hate in relation to each other and in relation to pleasure and pain

 1c. The distinction between love and desire: the generous and acquisitive aims

 1d. The aims and objects of love

 1e. The intensity and power of love: its increase or decrease; its constructive or destructive force

 1f. The intensity of hate: envy and jealousy

2. The kinds of love

 2a. Erotic love as distinct from lust or sexual desire

  (1) The sexual instinct: its relation to other instincts

  (2) Infantile sexuality: polymorphous perversity

  (3) Object-fixations, identifications, and transferences: sublimation

  (4) The perversion, degradation, or pathology of love: infantile and adult love

 2b. Friendly, tender, or altruistic love: fraternal love

  (1) The relation between love and friendship

  (2) Self-love in relation to the love of others: vanity and self-interest