シントピコンの「トピックの見取り図」を和訳してみた(その6)

 本記事では、アイデア=大項目の51~60までの「トピックの見取り図」の和訳を載せている。

 詳しい説明はこちら。

kozakashiku.hatenablog.com

 

—目次—

 

51人

1人間の定義:人間性の性質と特質の概念

 1a野蛮な動物とは本質的に区別されるもの、あるいは種類が異なるものとしての人間の概念:人間に固有の合理性と自由

 1b抽象化や関係的な思考、言語や法、芸術や科学などの力や性質によって、野蛮人と区別される人間の概念

 1c知性や他の動物も持っている性質の、程度の差においてのみ動物と区別される人間の概念、あるいは動物としての人間の概念

2人間の持っている人間についての知識

 2a直接的な自己意識:人間の、人間自身についての本質的で内省的な知識

 2b人間の性質についての科学:人類学と心理学;民族誌民族学;合理的心理学と経験的心理学;実験心理学と臨床心理学

 (1)人間の科学の主題、範囲、方法

 (2)心理学の方法と妥当性

 (3)心理学と生理学の関係:人間行動における有機的要因の研究

 (4)科学の序列における心理学の場所:他の学問研究の前提条件としての人間の研究

3人間の体質

 3a物質と精神、肉体と魂、延長と思惟の統一体または結合としての人間

 (1)純粋な精神としての人間:身体を使役する魂や精神

 (2)理性や意志のような、非物質的な力や機能に限定されたものとしての人間の精神

 3b人間と神や神々、あるいは天使や精神的実体との比較

 3c物質の組織、あるいは原子の配列としての人間

4人間の性質の、能力、力、機能への分解:精神の構造におけるエス、自我、超自我

 4a人間の成長力:植物や動物における類似した機能との比較

 4b人間の感覚的な力、欲求的な力:他の動物における類似した機能との比較

 4c人間の合理的な力:他の動物における類似した力の問題

 4d能力の一般理論:能力心理学への批判

5人間の力と機能の秩序と調和:人間の性質の矛盾;人間の高次な性質と低次な性質

 5a人間の諸力の間の協力と対立

 5b力の欠陥や対立による異常:精神薄弱、神経症、狂気、狂気

6男性と女性の特徴とその差異

 6a人間の不平等の原因と領域:能力、傾向、気質、習慣の差異

 6b男性と女性の平等や不平等

 6c人間の年齢:幼少期、青年期、壮年期、老年期;世代間の対立

7人間の類型の群変異:人種の差異

 7a人種類型の生物学的な側面

 7b人間の特性に対する環境要因の影響:人種あるいは国による差異の決定要因としての気候と地理

 7c人間の文化的、民族的、国家的な差異

8人間の起源や系譜

 8a神々の子孫あるいは産物としての人間という種

 8b神による人間の特別な創造

 8c他の形態の動物からの自然な変化としての人間

9人間の2つの状態

 9a黄金時代の神話:クロノスの時代とゼウスの時代

 9bエデンと、世界における人間の歴史に関するキリスト教の教義

 (1)エデンにおける人間の状態:アダムの超自然的な力

 (2)世界における人間の状態:堕落した人間:堕落した、または傷ついた人間の性質

 (3)世界における人間の人生の段階についてのキリスト教の見方:律法と恵み

 9c人間の人生の段階についての世俗的な概念:自然状態における人間と社会における人間;先史時代の人間と歴史時代の人間;原始的な人間と文明的な人間

10人間の、人間自身と、世界におけるその位置の概念

 10a人間と神や神々の関係についての人間の理解

 10b全てのものの尺度としての人間

 10c宇宙の不可欠な部分としての人間:宇宙における彼の地位

 10d人間の有限性と不十分さ:人間を超越した何かに依存し、命令される、人間の存在の感覚

 10e人間による、他の生き物や宇宙全体と人間との比較

11人間の神学的概念

 11a神の形で造られたものとしての人間

 11b神の父性と人間の同胞性

 11c人間の姿で現れた神:キリストの人間としての性質

12笑いと嘲笑の対象としての男:喜劇と風刺

13人間の偉大さと悲惨さ

 

51 Man

「Grat Books 2」p12-13

1.Definitions of man: conceptions of the properties and qualities of human nature

 1a. The conception of man as essentially distinct, or differing in kind, from brute animals: man's specific rationality and freedom

 1b. The conception of man as distinguished from brutes by such powers or properties as abstraction or relational thought, language and law, art and science

 1c. The conception of man as an animal, differing only in degree of intelligence and of

other qualities possessed by other animals

2. Man's knowledge of man

 2a. Immediate self-consciousness: man's intimate or introspective knowledge of himself

 2b. The sciences of human nature: anthropology and psychology; ethnography and ethnology; rational and empirical psychology; experimental and clinical psychology

  (1) The subject matter, scope, and methods of the science of man

  (2) The methods and validity of psychology

  (3) The relation of psychology to physiology: the study of organic factors in human behavior

  (4) The place of psychology in the order of sciences: the study of man as prerequisite for other studies

3. The constitution of man

 3a. Man as a unity or a conjunction of matter and spirit, body and soul, extension and thought

  (1) Man as a pure spirit: a soul or mind using a body

  (2) Man's spirituality as limited to his immaterial powers or functions, such as reason and will

 3b. Comparisons of man with God or the gods, or with angels or spiritual substances

 3c. Man as an organization of matter or as a collocation of atoms

4. The analysis of human nature into its faculties, powers, or functions: the id, ego, and superego in the structure of the psyche

 4a. Man's vegetative powers: comparison with similar functions in plants and animals

 4b. Man's sensitive and appetitive powers: comparison with similar functions in other animals

 4c. Mans rational powers: the problem of similar powers in other animals

 4d. The general theory of faculties: the critique of faculty psychology

5. The order and harmony of man's powers and functions: contradictions in human nature; the higher and lower nature of man

 5a. Cooperation or conflict among man's powers

 5b. Abnormalities due to defect or conflict of powers: feeblemindedness, neuroses, insanity, madness

6. The distinctive characteristics of men and women and their differences

 6a. The cause and range of human inequalities: differences in ability, inclination, temperament, habit

 6b. The equality or inequality of men and women

 6c. The ages of man: infancy, youth, maturity, senescence; generational conflict

7. Group variations in human type: racial differences

 7a. Biological aspects of racial type

 7b. The influence of environmental factors on human characteristics: climate and geography as determinants of racial or national differences

 7c. Cultural, ethnic, and national differences among men

8. The origin or genealogy of man

 8a. The race of men as descendants or products of the gods

 8b. God's special creation of man

 8c. Man as a natural variation from other forms of animal life

9. The two conditions of man

 9a. The myth of a golden age: the age of Kronos and the age of Zeus

 9b. The Christian doctrine of Eden and of the history of man in the world

  (1) The condition of man in Eden: the preternatural powers of Adam

  (2) The condition of man in the world: fallen man; corrupted or wounded human natures

  (3) The Christian view of the stages of human life in the world: law and grace

 9c. Secular conceptions of the stages of human life: man in a state of nature and in society; prehistoric and historic man; primitive and civilized man

10. Man's conception of himself and his place in the world

 10a. Man's understanding of his relation to the gods or God

 10b. Man as the measure of all things

 10c. Man as an integral part of the universe: his station in the cosmos

 10d. The finiteness and insufficiency of man: his sense of being dependent and ordered to something beyond himself

 10e. Man's comparison of himself with other creatures and with the universe as a whole.

11. The theological conception of man

 11a. Man as made in the image of God

 11b. The fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man

 11c. God incarnate in human form: the human nature of Christ

12. Man as an object of laughter and ridicule: comedy and satire

13. The grandeur and misery of man

 

52数学

1数学の学問:その部門や区分;数学の起源と発展

 1a数学と物理学、形而上学の区別:その論理学との関係

 1b数学の弁証法と哲学への寄与:教養教育におけるその位置

 1c数学的な知識の確実性と正確性:数学における真実;算術と幾何学アプリオリな基礎

2数学の対象:アイデアや抽象概念;数、図、外延、順序関係

 2a数学的対象の理解:直感、想像、作図による理解;時間と空間の形態

 2b数学的対象の存在:それらの現実的、理念的、精神的な実在

 2c量の種類:大きさと数;連続量と離散量;無理数の問題

3数学の方法:数学的思考のモデル

 3a数学における論証の条件と特徴:定義、仮定、公理、仮説、定理、証明の使用

 3b作図の役割:証明、数学的実在、または数学的探究の範囲

 3c分析と総合:関数と変数

 3d記号と公式:一般性の達成

4数学的な手法

 4a算術的プロセスと代数プロセス:代数式

 4b幾何学の演算

 4c比と方程式の利用

 4d取り尽くし法:極限の理論と微積

5物理現象への数学の応用:数学の有用性

 5a測定の技術

 5b数理物理学:自然の数学的構造

 5c純粋数学応用数学の違い

 

52 Mathematics

「Great Books 2」p39-40

1. The art and science of mathematics: its branches or divisions; the origin and development of mathematics

 1a. The distinction of mathematics from physics and metaphysics: its relation to logic

 1b. The service of mathematics to dialectic and philosophy: its place in liberal education

 1c. The certainty and exactitude of mathematical knowledge: truth in mathematics; the a priori foundations of arithmetic and geometry

2. The objects of mathematics: ideas or abstractions; number, figure, extension, relation order

 2a. The apprehension of mathematical objects: by intuition, imagination, construction; the forms of time and space

 2b. The being of mathematical objects: their real, ideal, or mental existence

 2c. Kinds of quantity: magnitude and multitude; continuous and discrete quantities; the problem of the irrational

3. Method in mathematics: the model of mathematical thought

 3a. The conditions and character of demonstration in mathematics: the use of definitions, pras, axioms, hypotheses, theorems, proofs

3b. The role of construction: its bearing on proof, mathematical existence, and the scope of mathematical inquiry

 3c. Analysis and synthesis: function and variable

 3d. Symbols and formulas: the attainment of generality

4. Mathematical techniques

 4a. The arithmetic and algebraic processes: algebraic form

 4b. The operations of geometry

 4c. The use of proportions and equations

 4d. The method of exhaustion: the theory of limits and the calculus

5. The applications of mathematics to physical phenomena: the utility of mathematics

 5a. The art of measurement

 5b. Mathematical physics: the mathematical structure of nature

 5c. The distinction between pure and applied mathematics

 

53物質

1変化の原理としての、また変化する物体の存在の1つの構成要素としての物質の概念:容器あるいは基礎

 1a物質と変化の分析:一次物質と二次物質;欠如と形態;参加と容器

 1b変化の種類に関する物質:本質的な変化と非本質的な変化;地上の運動と天体の運動

 1c物質と、個物と普遍の区別:特異な物質と共通の物質;感覚可能な物質と理解可能な物質

2延長として、身体的物質としての、実体の現れとしての物質の概念:原子と複合体

 2a物質の性質:その構成に関する仮説;物質の波としての性質と粒子としての性質

 2b質量とエネルギーの等価性

 2c身体の運動

 2d感覚的な性質の補助としての物質

 2e肉体と精神、物質と精神の分断

3物質の実在

 3a唯一の実在としての物質:唯物論、原子論

 3b存在や実在の最も不完全な程度のものとしての物質

 3c精神の虚構としての物質

 3d神と物質の関係:物質の創造とその運動

4知識の対象や状態としての物質

 4a物質の可知性:感覚によるもの、理性によるもの

 4b科学の概念と定義における物質の役割:物理学、数学、形而上学における抽象概念の程度

 4c感覚、想像、記憶の物質的な状態

 4d思考の物質的な状態:物質と心の存在や行動の関係

5善と悪に関する物質

6唯物論とその帰結に対する批判

 

53 Matter

「Great Books 2」p55

1. The conception of matter as a principle of change and as one constituent of the being of changing things: the receptacle or substratum

 1a. Matter and the analysis of change: prime and secondary matter; privation and form; participation and the receptacle

 1b. Matter in relation to the kinds of change: substantial and accidental change; terrestrial and celestial motion

 1c. Matter and the distinction between individual and universal: signate and common matter; sensible and intelligible matter

2. The conception of matter as extension, as a bodily substance, or as a mode of substance: atoms and compound bodies

 2a. The properties of matter: hypotheses concerning its constitution; the wave and particle properties of matter

 2b. The equivalence of mass and energy

 2c. The motions of bodies

 2d. Matter as the support of sensible qualities

 2e. The diremption of body and mind, or matter and spirit

3. The existence of matter

 3a. Matter as the sole existent: materialism, atomism

 3b. Matter as the most imperfect grade of being or reality

 3c. Matter as a fiction of the mind

 3d. The relation of God to matter: the creation of matter and its motions

4. Matter as an object or condition of knowledge

 4a. The knowability of matter: by sense, by reason

 4b. The role of matter in the concepts and definitions of the several sciences: the grades of abstraction in physics, mathematics, and metaphysics

 4c. The material conditions of sensation, imagination, and memory

 4d. The material conditions of thought: the relation of matter to the existence and acts of the mind

5. Matter in relation to good and evil

6. Criticisms of materialism and its consequences

 

54力学

1力学の基礎

 1a物質、質量、原子:物体の主要な性質

 1b運動の法則:慣性;力の尺度;作用と反作用

 1c空間、時間、運動

 (1)デカルト座標ガリレイ座標

 (2)空間と時間の概念に対する等速直線運動の影響:特殊相対性理論ローレンツ変換

 (3)空間と時間の概念に対する非線形運動と回転運動の影響:一般相対性理論ガウス座標

2力学の論理と方法

 2a力学における経験、実験、帰納の役割

 2b力学における仮説の利用

 2c力学における因果関係の理論

3力学における数学の利用:力学の進歩の数学的発見への依存

 3a数と連続体:測定の理論;ユークリッド連続体と非ユークリッド連続体

 3b円錐曲線の幾何学:惑星と発射体の運動

 3c代数と解析幾何学:力学的な問題の記号による定式化

 3d微積分:不規則な領域と可変運動の測定

4力学の科学の位置、範囲、理想:自然哲学や他の科学との関係

 4a地球力学と天体力学:有限体や原子、素粒子の力学

 4b量と運動の観点からの質と質的変化の説明

 4c自然の力学的説明vs有機的説明

5力学の基本的な現象と問題:静力学と動力学

 5a単純な力学:天秤と梃子

 5b流体の平衡と運動:浮力、ガスの重さと圧力、真空の作用

 5c応力、ひずみ、弾性:物質の強度

 5d運動、真空、媒介物:抵抗と摩擦

 5e直線運動

 (I)等速運動:その原因と法則

 (2)加速運動:自由落下

 5f中心の周りの運動:惑星、発射体、振り子

 (1)軌道、力、速度、時間、周期の決定

 (2)運動の摂動:2体問題と3体問題

6力学の基本概念

 6a重心:1つまたは複数の物体の決定

 6b重量と比重

 6c速度、加速度、運動量:角や直線、平均や瞬間

 6d万有引力の理論

 (1)慣性質量と重力質量の等価性

 (2)質量と重力の関係:空間の曲率

 (3)遠隔作用:力の場と媒体

 6e力の場:統一場理論の理想

 6f平行四辺形の法則:力の構成と速度の構成

 6g仕事とエネルギー:その保存;永久運動;質量との関係;最小作用の原理

7他の現象への力学的な原理の拡張

 7a光:粒子説と波動説

 (1)反射と屈折の法則

 (2)色の創造

 (3)光速

 (4)光の媒体:エーテル

 (5)重力場での光線の曲がり

 (6)ドップラー効果

 7b音:音響現象の力学的説明

 7c熱の理論

 (1)熱の現象の説明:熱素説

 (2)熱量の測定と数学的分析

 7d磁気:地球の巨大磁石

 (1)磁気現象:指極性、変動、伏角

 (2)磁力と磁場

 7e電気:静電気学と電気力学

 (1)電気の源:電気の種類の関係

 (2)電気と物質:伝導、遮断、誘導、電気化学的分解

 (3)電気と磁気の関係:電磁場

 (4)電気と熱や光の関係:熱電気

 (5)電気量の測定

8量子力学

 8a分割不可能な量子で生成される電磁放射:原子構造の量子力学的な説明;定常状態

 8b量子関係の数学的表現:対応、確率関数、行列、波動力学、光と物質の波動-粒子の二重性

 8c量子現象の知識の限界:観測者と実験現象の相互作用;不確実性または不確定性の原理

 8d量子現象の解釈:相補性;量子力学における存在と因果関係の問題;現実の説明としての量子論の十分性

 8e量子力学相対性理論、他の経科学との関係

 

54 Mechanics

「Great Books 2」p82-84

1.The foundations of mechanics

 1a. Matter, mass, and atoms: the primary qualities of bodies

 1b. The laws of motion: inertia; the measure of force; action and reaction

 1c. Space, time, and motion

  (1) Cartesian and Galilean coordinates

  (2) The effect of uniform rectilinear motion on the concepts of space and time: the special theory of relativity and the Lorentz transformation

  (3) The effect of nonlinear and rotary motion on the concepts of space and time: the general theory of relativity and Gaussian coordinates

2. The logic and method of mechanics

 2a. The role of experience, experiment, and induction in mechanics

 2b. The use of hypotheses in mechanics

 2c. Theories of causality in mechanics

3. The use of mathematics in mechanics: the dependence of progress in mechanics on mathematical discovery

 3a. Number and the continuum: the theory of measurement; Euclidean and non-Euclidean continua

 3b. The geometry of conics: the motion of planets and projectiles

 3c. Algebra and analytic geometry: the symbolic formulation of mechanical problems

 3d. Calculus: the measurement of irregular areas and variable motions

4. The place, scope, and ideal of the science of mechanics: its relation to the philosophy of nature and other sciences

 4a. Terrestrial and celestial mechanics: the mechanics of finite bodies and of atoms or elementary particles

 4b. The explanation of qualities and qualitative change in terms of quantity and motion

 4c. The mechanistic versus the organismic account of nature

5. The basic phenomena and problems of mechanics: statics and dynamics

 5a. Simple machines: the balance and the lever

 5b. The equilibrium and motion of fluids: buoyancy, the weight and pressure of gases, the effects of a vacuum

 5c. Stress, strain, and elasticity: the strength of materials

 5d. Motion, void, and medium: resistance and friction

 5e. Rectilinear motion

  (I) Uniform motion: its causes and laws

  (2) Accelerated motion: free fall

 5f. Motion about a center: planets, projectiles, pendulum

  (1) Determination of orbit, force, speed, time, and period

  (2) Perturbation of motion: the two and three body problems

6. Basic concepts of mechanics

 6a. Center of gravity: its determination for one or several bodies

 6b. Weight and specific gravity

 6c. Velocity, acceleration, and momentum: angular or rectilinear, average or instantaneous 6d. Theories of universal gravitation

  (1) The equivalence of inertial and gravitational mass

  (2) The relation of mass and gravitational force: the curvature of space

  (3) Action-at-a-distance: the field and medium of force

 6e. Fields of force: the ideal of a unified field theory

 6f. The parallelogram law: the composition of forces and the composition of velocities

 6g. Work and energy: their conservation; perpetual motion; their relation to mass; the principle of least action

7. The extension of mechanical principles to other phenomena

 7a. Light: the corpuscular and the wave theory

  (1) The laws of reflection and refraction

  (2) The production of colors

  (3) The speed of light

  (4) The medium of light: the ether

  (5) The bending of light rays in a gravitational field

  (6) The Doppler effect

 7b. Sound: the mechanical explanation of acoustic phenomena

 7c. The theory of heat

  (1) The description of the phenomena of heat: the hypothesis of caloric

  (2) The measurement and the mathematical analysis of the quantities of heat

 7d. Magnetism: the great magnet of the earth

  (1) Magnetic phenomena: coition, verticity, variation, dip

  (2) Magnetic force and magnetic fields

 7e. Electricity: electrostatics and electrodynamics

  (1) The source of electricity: the relation of the kinds of electricity

  (2) Electricity and matter: conduction, insulation, induction, electrochemical decomposition

  (3) The relation of electricity and magnetism: the electromagnetic field

  (4) The relation of electricity to heat and light: thermoelectricity

  (5) The measurement of electric quantities

8. Quantum mechanics

 8a. Electromagnetic radiation as produced in indivisible quanta: the quantum-mechanical explanation of atomic structure; stationary states

 8b. The mathematical expression of quantum relations: correspondence, probability functions, matrices, wave mechanics, the wave-particle duality of light and matter

 8c. Limitations on the knowledge of quantum phenomena: the interaction of the observer and experimental phenomena; the principle of uncertainty or indeterminacy

 8d. The interpretation of quantum phenomena: complementarity; the problems of being and causation in quantum mechanics; the sufficiency of quantum theory as an explanation of reality

 8e. The relation of quantum mechanics to the theory of relativity and to other empirical sciences

 

55医学

1医学の専門職、その目的と義務:医師と患者の関係;社会における医師の位置;医療倫理

2医学の技術

 2a医学の技術の科学的な基礎:経験頼みの医師と熟練の医師との対比

 2b治療における技術と自然の関係:模倣と協力

 2c医学と他の技術や職業との比較:呪術の実践;シャーマニズム

3医学の実践

 3a医療行為における各ケースへの技術のルールの適用

 3b一般的な実践と専門的な実践:人体全体の治療と各部位の治療

 3c診断と予後:症状の解釈;病歴

 3d予防と治療の要素

 (1)生活の管理:気候、食事、運動、職業、日常生活

 (2)薬:薬物、特効薬

 (3)手術

4健康の概念:正常なバランスあるいは調和

5病気の理論

 5a病気の性質

 5b病気の分類

 5c病気の過程:発症、峠、後遺症

 5d病気の原因:内的要因と外的要因

 (1)体液説:気質の傾向

 (2)身体障害の心理的な発生:心気症

 5e病気の道徳的、または政治的な類似物

6精神疾患精神障害:その原因と治療法

 6a正気と狂気の区別:精神衛生の概念と狂気の性質

 6b精神疾患の分類

 6c精神障害のプロセスと原因

 (1)精神疾患身体的な起源

 (2)精神疾患の機能的な起源

 6d機能障害の治療:医学の一分野としての心理療法

7病気とその治療に関する歴史的な、または文学的な記録:伝染病、疫病、悪疫

 

55 Medicine

「Great Books 2」p102

1. The profession of medicine, its aims and obligations: the relation of physician to patient; the place of the physician in society; medical ethics

2. The art of medicine

 2a. The scientific foundations of the art of medicine: the contrast between the empiric and the artist in medicine

 2b. The relation of art to nature in healing: imitation and cooperation

 2c. The comparison of medicine with other arts and professions: the practice of magic; shamanism

3. The practice of medicine

 3a. The application of rules of art to particular cases in medical practice

 3b. General and specialized practice: treating the whole man or the isolated part

 3c. Diagnosis and prognosis: the interpretation of symptoms; case histories

 3d. The factors in prevention and therapy

  (1) Control of regimen: climate, diet, exercise, occupation, daily routine

  (2) Medication: drugs, specifics

  (3) Surgery

4. The concept of health: normal balance or harmony

5. The theory of disease

 5a. The nature of disease

 5b. The classification of diseases

 5c. The disease process: onset, crisis, aftereffects

 5d. The causes of disease: internal and external factors

  (1) The humoral hypothesis: temperamental dispositions

  (2) The psychogenesis of bodily disorders: hypochondria

 5e. The moral and political analogues of disease

6. Mental disease or disorder: its causes and cure

 6a. The distinction between sanity and insanity: the concept of mental health and the nature of madness

 6b. The classification of mental diseases

 6c. The process and causes of mental disorder

  (1) Somatic origins of mental disease

  (2) Functional origins of mental disease

 6d. The treatment of functional disorders: psychotherapy as a branch of medicine

7. The historical and fictional record on disease and its treatment: epidemics, plagues, pestilences

 

56記憶と想像

1獣と人間における記憶と想像の能力

 1a記憶、想像と感覚の関係:直観、再現、認識の総合における可能な経験のアプリオリな基盤

 1b記憶と想像の生理学:その身体器官

 1c記憶と想像の区別とつながり:その相互依存

 1d記憶と想像の感情と意志に対する影響:自発的な運動

2記憶の活動

 2a保持:その強度に影響を与える要因

 2b想起:想起の容易さ、妥当さに影響を与える要因

 2cアイデアの連想:制限連想と自由連想;回想と空想

 2d想起の有無に関わらない認識

 2e正常な記憶の範囲と領域:記憶の障害や欠陥とその原因

 (1)経過時間の関数としての忘却

 (2)不愉快なことの忘却:葛藤と抑圧

 (3)器質的な病変:健忘症や失語症

 (4)虚偽記憶:記憶の幻想;デジャヴ

3知識の活動、あるいは知識の源泉としての記憶

 3aあらゆる学習の過程としての回想:生得的なアイデア、または独創的な理性

 3b感覚的な記憶と知的な記憶:過去の知識と知識の習慣

 3c科学者による記憶の使用:一般化された経験の源としての、照合された記憶

 3d詩と歴史のミューズとしての記憶:歴史の人間の記憶への依存

4記憶の寄与:時間の拘束

 4a個人の生活における記憶:個人のアイデンティティと連続性

 4b集団、人種、国家における記憶:本能、伝説、伝統

5想像力、空想、夢想の活動:イメージの性質と多様性

 5a模倣的な想像と創造的な想像の違い:表象されたイメージと想像的な構築

 5bアイデアや概念とは区別されるイメージ:抽象的、普遍的なものとは対照的な、具体的、特殊的なもの

 5c想像の病理学:幻覚、妄執的なイメージ

6思考と知識における想像の役割

 6a知識としての想像:可能な経験と実際の経験の関係

 6b知性が人間の想像に与える影響:動物の想像的思考

 6c合理的な思考と知識の、想像への依存

 (1)イメージからのアイデアの抽出:思考の条件としてのイメージ

 (2)悟性の概念と直観の感覚的多様性を媒介するものとしての想像の枠組み:知覚の超越的な統一

 6d想像の限界:イメージのない思考;思弁的な哲学における、想像を超えることの必要性

7想像力と芸術

 7a芸術作品の制作と鑑賞における想像の利用

 7b詩における幻想的なものと現実的なもの:詩と歴史における蓋然性と可能性

8夢の性質と原因

 8a神の霊感による夢:予言的な前兆;夢を媒介にした占い

 8b睡眠時の夢における感覚と記憶の役割

 8c夢想や空想における欲望の表出

 8d夢の象徴性

 (1)夢の顕在的な内容と潜在的な内容:夢の仕事

 (2)夢における特定の記号の繰り返しの使用:夢の言語

 8e抑圧された無意識を明らかにする作業としての夢分析

 

56 Memory and Imagination

「Great Books 2」p118-119

1. The faculties of memory and imagination in brutes and men

 1a. The relation of memory and imagination to sense: the a priori grounds of possible experience in the synthesis of intuition, reproduction, and recognition

 1b. The physiology of memory and imagination: their bodily organs

 1c. The distinction and connection of memory and imagination: their interdependence

 1d. The influence of memory and imagination on the emotions and will: voluntary movement

2. The activity of memory

 2a. Retention: factors influencing its strength

 2b. Recollection: factors influencing ease and adequacy of recall

 2c. The association of ideas: controlled and free association; reminiscence and reverie

 2d. Recognition with or without recall

 2e. The scope and range of normal memory: failure or defect of memory and its causes

  (1) Forgetting as a function of the time elapsed

  (2) The obliviscence of the disagreeable: conflict and repression

  (3) Organic lesions: amnesia and the aphasias

  (4) False memories: illusions of memory; déjà vu

3. Remembering as an act of knowledge and as a source of knowledge

 3a. Reminiscence as the process of all learning: innate ideas or seminal reasons

 3b. Sensitive and intellectual memory: knowledge of the past and the habit of knowledge

 3c. The scientist's use of memory: collated memories as the source of generalized experience

 3d. Memory as the muse of poetry and history: the dependence of history on the memory of men

4. The contribution of memory: the binding of time

 4a. Memory in the life of the individual: personal identity and continuity

 4b. Memory in the life of the group, race, or nation: instinct, legend, and tradition

5 The activity of imagination, fancy, or fantasy: the nature and variety of images

 5a. The distinction between reproductive and creative imagination: the representative image and the imaginative construct

 5b. The image distinguished from the idea or concept: the concrete and particular as contrasted with the abstract and universal

 5c. The pathology of imagination: hallucinations, persistent imagery

6. The role of imagination in thinking and knowing

 6a. Imagination as knowledge: its relation to possible and actual experience

 6b. The effect of intellect on human imagination: the imaginative thinking of animals

 6c. The dependence of rational thought and knowledge on imagination

  (1) The abstraction of ideas from images: the image as a condition of thought

  (2) The schema of the imagination as mediating between concepts of the understanding and the sensory manifold of intuition: the transcendental unity of apperception

 6d. The limits of imagination: imageless thought; the necessity of going beyond imagination in the speculative sciences

7. imagination and the fine arts

 7a. The use of imagination in the production and appreciation of works of art

 7b. The fantastic and the realistic in poetry: the probable and the possible in poetry and history

8. The nature and causes of dreaming

 8a. Dreams as divinely inspired: their prophetic portent; divination through the medium of dreams

 8b. The role of sensation and memory in the dreams of sleep

 8c. The expression of desire in daydreaming or fantasy

 8d. The symbolism of dreams

  (1) The manifest and latent content of dreams: the dreamwork

  (2) The recurrent use of specific symbols in dreams: the dream-language

 8e. Dream-analysis as uncovering the repressed unconscious

 

57形而上学

1最高の人間科学の概念:弁証法、第一哲学、形而上学、自然神学、超越哲学

2最高の人間科学の分析:弁証法的、形而上学的、超越的な知識の特徴

 2a最高科学に特徴的な目的や問題

 2b最高科学の概念、抽象概念、原理の性質

 2c形而上学の方法:経験的な方法と超越的な方法の区別

 2d自然の形而上学と倫理の形而上学の区別:神、自由、不死の形而上学的問題の、思弁的な議論と現実的な解決の違い

3他分野に関する形而上学

 3a形而上学と神学の関係

 3b形而上学と数学、物理学または自然哲学、心理学、経験科学の関係

 3c形而上学と論理学、弁証法の関係

4形而上学への批判とその再構築

 4a独断や詭弁としての形而上学の拒否と風刺

 4b形而上学の再構築:形而上学の準備としての批判哲学

 

57 Metaphysics

「Great Books 2」p136

1. Conceptions of the highest human science: dialectic, first philosophy, metaphysics, natural theology, transcendental philosophy

2. The analysis of the highest human science: the character of dialectical, metaphysical, or transcendental knowledge

 2a. The distinctive objects or problems of the supreme science

 2b. The nature of the concepts, abstractions, or principles of the highest science

 2c. The method of metaphysics: the distinction between empirical and transcendental methods

 2d. The distinction between a metaphysic of nature and a metaphysic of morals: the difference between the speculative treatment and the practical resolution of the metaphysical problems of God, freedom, and immortality

3. Metaphysics in relation to other disciplines

 3a. The relation of metaphysics to theology

 3b. The relation of metaphysics to mathematics, physics or natural philosophy, psychology, and the empirical sciences

 3c. The relation of metaphysics to logic and dialectic

4. The criticism and reformation of metaphysics

 4a. The dismissal or satirization of metaphysics as dogmatism or sophistry

 4b. Reconstructions of metaphysics: critical philosophy as a propaedeutic to metaphysics

 

58精神

1人間の精神の多様な概念

 1a感覚や想像とは区別される、知性や理性、魂や人間本性の一部あるいは力としての精神

 (1)感覚する活動や理解する活動と、感覚の対象や理性の対象との違い

 (2)知性と感覚の協力:思考の想像への依存と理性による想像力の方向づけ

 (3)知性の機能:理解、判断、推論の活動

 (4)力と機能における、活動する知性と潜在的な知性の区別

 1b思惟実体と同一のものとしての精神

 (1)思惟実体としての精神と、感覚や想像力との関係

 (2)思惟実体の活動としての思考と意志

 1c思考される神の性質の特定の形態としての精神

 (1)思考形態としての人間の精神の起源

 (2)思考形態としての人間の精神の性質

 1d全ての認知的機能や意志的な機能を実行する力を持った、魂や心としての精神

 (1)精神の単純なアイデアの起源:感覚と反省

 (2)アイデアの関連づけにおける悟性の活動:複雑なアイデアの形成

 1e認知能力の三幅対としての精神:悟性、判断、理性

 (1)悟性と感覚や直観の関係:自然の領域におけるその応用;法への適合

 (2)判断と快、不快の関係:芸術の領域におけるその応用;審美的な究極性

 (3)理性と欲望や意志の関係:自由の領域におけるその適用;最高善

 1f自身を普遍的なものと知っている、知性や自己意識としての精神:知性と意志の統一

 1g精神的な過程の全体としての、また意味や目的のある行動の原理としての精神

 (1)思考、意識、経験の流れの性質:精神活動の多様性

 (2)心の地形

 (3)注意の単一性と意識の単一性:心の選択性

2物質や身体に関する人間の精神

 2a心の非物質性:非物質的な原理、精神的実体、身体器官なしで機能する実体のない力としての心

 2b物質や自然の潜在性と比較したときの、知性や理性の潜在性

 2c精神と身体の相互作用

 (1)精神活動の生理学的な状態

 (2)精神活動が身体の状態に及ぼす影響

 2d精神と身体の並行性

 2e精神の物質への還元:過程、精神と魂の違い、精神と身体の違いの原子論的説明

3動物の精神と人間の精神

 3a人間本性に固有の特性としての精神、理性、悟性:人間の理性と動物の知性や本能の比較

 3b人間と動物に共通の特性としての精神:人間の知性と動物の知性の、程度の差や質的な差異

 3c心や知性の進化

4人間の精神の様々な状態

 4a知性の個人差:理解力の程度

 4b子どもの精神構造

 4c潜在的な知性の状態:その可能性、習慣、および現実性

 4d経験に先立つ精神の状態

 (1)完全に潜在的な精神:タブララサとしての心

 (2)アイデアを持った心の生得的な才能:本能的な決定

 (3)精神の超越的な、あるいはアプリオリな形式とカテゴリー

 4e魂と身体が分離しているときの人間の精神の状態

 4f人間の知性の超自然的な状態:無知の状態;至福;キリストの人間的な知性

5人間の精神の弱さと限界

 5a人間の精神の可謬性:誤りの原因

 5b精神の自然な限界:不可知なこと;それ自体の力を超越した対象;理性によるそれ自体の限界や境界の批判的決定

 5c神の恵みによる人間の精神の向上:信仰と超自然的な贈与

6精神の反省性:精神の、精神自体とその活動に関する知識

7意識の性質と段階:無意識の領域

 7a自己意識の性質

 7b意識の程度や状態:覚醒、夢、睡眠

 7c精神の意識的、前意識的、無意識的な活動

8精神の病理学:理性の喪失や停止

 8a正気と狂気の区別:明晰さや洞察力の基準

 8b精神病理の原因:器質的要因と機能的要因

 8c精神に特有の異常:組織立った妄想

9倫理的な秩序と政治的な秩序における精神

 9a思弁的な知性と実践的な知性、理性の区別:領域的な知識、信念、行動

 9b理性と意志、欲望、感情の関係

 9c人間の行動を制御するものとしての理性:美徳や義務の原理としての理性

 9d自由意志の原理としての理性:倫理的な自由と政治的な自由の源泉としての合理性

 9e人間社会を形成するものとしての理性:政府と法の権威

 9f人間の最高の使命としての理性的な生活、あるいは精神的な生活:全ての人間の活動の原理としての理性

10人間から分離した精神の存在

 10a自然の秩序に内在する理性

 10bヌースや知的原理:一者や世界霊魂との関係

 10c純粋知性の領域:天使の知性

 10d活動している知性と潜在的な知性の統一的存在と分離的存在

 10e神の直接的で無限な形態としての精神

 10f絶対精神:その現れの瞬間

 (1)世界史における精神や心の展開

 (2)国家における心の具体的な客観化

 10g 神の知性:神の存在や意志との関係

 

58 Mind

「Great Books 2」p149-151

1. Diverse conceptions of the human mind

 1a. Mind as intellect or reason, a part or power of the soul or human nature, distinct from sense and imagination

  (1) The difference between the acts of sensing and understanding, and the objects of sense and reason

  (2) The cooperation of intellect and sense: the dependence of thought upon imagination and the direction of imagination by reason

  (3) The functioning of intellect: the acts of understanding, judgment, and reasoning

  (4) The distinction of the active and the possible intellect in power and function

 1b. Mind as identical with thinking substance

  (1) The relation of the mind as thinking substance to sense and imagination

  (2) Thinking and willing as the acts of the thinking substance

 1c. Mind as a particular mode of that attribute to God which is thought

  (1). The origin of the human mind as a mode of thought

  (2) The properties of the human mind as a mode of thought

 1d. Mind as soul or spirit, having the power to perform all cognitive and voluntary functions

  (1) The origin of the mind's simple ideas: sensation and reflection

  (2) The activity of the understanding in relating ideas: the formation of complex ideas

 1e. Mind as a triad of cognitive faculties: understanding, judgment, reasons

  (1) The relation of understanding to sense or intuition: its application in the realm of nature; conformity to law

  (2) The relation of judgment to pleasure and displeasure: its application in the realm of art; aesthetic finality

  (3) The relation of reason to desire or will: its application in the realm of freedom; the summum bonum

 1f. Mind as intelligence or self-consciousness, knowing itself as universal: the unity of intellect and will

 1g. Mind as the totality of mental processes and as the principle of meaningful or purposive behavior

  (1) The nature of the stream of thought, consciousness, or experience: the variety of

mental operations

  (2) The topography of mind

  (3) The unity of attention and of consciousness: the selectivity of mind

2. The human mind in relation to matter or body

 2a. The immateriality of mind: mind as an immaterial principle, a spiritual substance, or as an incorporeal power functioning without a bodily organ

 2b. The potentiality of intellect or reason compared with the potentiality of matter or nature

 2c. The interaction of mind and body

  (1) The physiological conditions of mental activity

  (2) The influence of mental activity on bodily states

 2d. The parallelism of mind and body

 2e. The reduction of mind to matter: the atomic explanation of its processes, and of the difference between mind and soul, and between mind and body

3. Mind in animals and in men

 3a. Mind, reason, or understanding as a specific property of human nature: comparison of human reason with animal intelligence and instinct

 3b. Mentality as a common property of men and animals: the differences between human and animal intelligence in degree or quality

 3c. The evolution of mind or intelligence

4. The various states of the human mind

 4a. Individual differences in intelligence: degrees of capacity for understanding

 4b. The mentality of children

 4c. The states of the possible intellect: its potentiality, habits, and actuality

 4d. The condition of the mind prior to experience

  (1) The mind as completely potential: the mind as a tabula rasa

  (2) The innate endowment of the mind with ideas: instinctive determinations

  (3) The transcendental or a priori forms and categories of the minds

 4e. The condition of the human mind when the soul is separate from the body

 4f. Supernatural states of the human intellect: the state of innocence; beatitude; the human intellect of Christ

5. The weakness and limits of the human mind

 5a. The fallibility of the human mind: the causes of error

 5b. The natural limits of the mind: the unknowable; objects which transcend its powers reason's critical determination of its own limits or boundaries

 5c. The elevation of the human mind by divine grace: faith and the supernatural gifts

6. The reflexivity of mind: the mind's knowledge of itself and its acts

7. The nature and phases of consciousness: the realm of the unconscious

 7a. The nature of self-consciousness

 7b. The degrees or states of consciousness: waking, dreaming, sleeping

 7c. The conscious, preconscious, and unconscious activities of mind

8. The pathology of mind: the loss or abeyance of reason

 8a. The distinction between sanity and madness: the criterion of lucidity or insight

 8b. The causes of mental pathology: organic and functional factors

 8c. The abnormality peculiar to mind: systematic delusion

9. Mind in the moral and political order

 9a. The distinction between the speculative and practical intellect or reason: the sphere knowledge, belief, and action

 9b. The relation of reason to will, desire, and emotion

 9c. Reason as regulating human conduct reason as the principle of virtue or duty.

 9d. Reason as the principle of free will: rationality as the source of moral and political freedom

 9e. Reason as formative of human society: the authority of government and law

 9f. The life of reason, or the life of the mind, as man’s highest vocation: reason as the principle of all human work

10. The existence of mind apart from man

 10a. The indwelling reason in the order of nature

 10b. Nous or the intellectual principle: its relation to the One and to the world-soul

 10c. The realm of the pure intelligences: the angelic intellect

 10d. The unity and separate existence of the active or the possible intellect

 10e. Mind as an immediate infinite mode of God

 10f. Absolute mind: the moments of its manifestations

   (1) The unfolding of mind or spirit in world history

   (2) the concrete objectification of mind in the state

 10g. The divine intellect: its relation to the divine being and the divine will

 

59君主制

1君主制の定義と王制の種類の分類

 1a王による統治と政治的な統治の区別

 (1)立憲制や法の支配と対照的な、絶対的支配、または個人による支配

 (2)絶対的な統治の理論:絶対権力の性質;君主の権利と義務;絶対的な統治における支配者と被支配者の根本的な不平等

 1b絶対君主制の修正:君主制の原理の異なる形での具現化

 (1)君主制と他の各形態の政府の組み合わせ:混合政体

 (2)立憲君主制制限君主制

 (3)共和制の行政府における君主制の原理

 1c君主制における継承の原理

2王制の理論

 2a王の神性

 2b神による統治と最良の人間による支配の類似性:哲人王

 2c王の神聖な制度:王の神聖な権利の理論

 2d王族の神話:王族の特性と君主制の義務

3君主権の利用と乱用

 3a臣民に仕える善良な王と慈悲深い専制君主:君主の教育

 3b個人的な権勢の拡大のための絶対的な権力の利用:君主と暴君の戦略

4君主制と各形態の政府の比較

 4a王政の家父長的性格:家族や部族における絶対的な支配、または国家における父権主義

 4b君主制と、専制政治や暴政を分ける境界線

 4c統一、富、領土の範囲に関する、王制と共和制の違い

 4d君主制や王による支配の擁護

 (1)絶対君主制の必要性

 (2)いくつかの優れた政府の形態の中で、最良な、または最も効率的な形態としての君主制

 (3)混合政体の優越:領土における絶対的な国王大権の擁護

 4e君主制や絶対的な統治への非難

 (1)君主制の父権的性格や専制的性格:慈悲深い専制主義の拒絶;憲法上の安全装置の利点

 (2)自治の能力がない人々のための絶対的な支配や慈悲深い専制政治の正当化

 (3)絶対君主制の非合法性:国民主権の原理の違反

5植民地、属国、被征服民の絶対的な統治

 5a帝国による支配の正当化:征服者の権利;帝国の統一と文明化の成果

 5b帝国主義の不当性:搾取と専制主義

6君主制の歴史:その起源と展開

 

59 Monarchy

「Great Books 2」p171-172

1. The definition of monarchy and the classification of the types of kingship

 1a. The distinction between royal and political government

  (1) Absolute or personal rule contrasted with constitutional government or rule by law

  (2) The theory of absolute government: the nature of absolute power; the rights and duties of the monarch; the radical inequality between ruler and ruled in absolute government

 1b. Modifications of absolute monarchy: other embodiments of the monarchical principle

  (1) The combination of monarchy with other forms of government: the mixed regime

  (2) Constitutional or limited monarchy

  (3) The monarchical principle in the executive branch of republican government

 1c. The principle of succession in monarchies

2. The theory of royalty

 2a. The divinity of kings 

 2b. The analogy between divine government and rule by the best man: the philosopher king

 2c. The divine institution of kings: the theory of the divine right of kings

 2d. The myth of the royal personage: the attributes of royalty and the burdens of monarchy

3. The use and abuse of monarchical power

 3a. The good king and the benevolent despot in the service of their subjects: the education of the prince

 3b. The exploitation of absolute power for personal aggrandizement: the strategies of princes and tyrants

4. Comparison of monarchy with other forms of government

 4a. The patriarchical character of kingship: absolute rule in the family or tribe, and paternalism in the state

 4b. The line which divides monarchy from despotism and tyranny

 4c. The differences between kingdoms and republics with respect to unity, wealth, and extent of territory

 4d. The defense of monarchy or royal rule

  (1) The necessity for absolute government

  (2) Monarchy as the best or most efficient of the several good forms of government

  (3) The preference for the mixed regime: defense of royal prerogatives as absolute in

their sphere

 4e. The attack on monarchy or absolute government

  (1) The paternalistic or despotic character of monarchy: the rejection of benevolent despotism; the advantages of constitutional safeguards

  (2) The justification of absolute rule or benevolent despotism for peoples incapable of self-government

  (3) The illegitimacy of absolute monarchy: the violation of the principle of popular sovereignty

5. The absolute government of colonies, dependencies, or conquered peoples

 5a. The justification of imperial rule: the rights of the conqueror; the unifying and civilizing achievements of empire

 5b. The injustice of imperialism: exploitation and despotism

6. The history of monarchy: its origin and developments

 

60自然

1自然の概念

 1a物の性質やふるまいの本質的な源としての自然

 (1)本質的な性質と個物の性質の区別:一般的な性質と特殊な性質、また個物の、偶然的な、非本質的な性質

 (2)物質と形に関する性質や本質

 1b宇宙、または物事の全体としての自然:神と自然の同一視;能産的自然と所産的自然の区別

 1c感覚の対象の複合体としての自然:普遍的な法則による決定の下に存在するものの領域

2自然や自然的なもののアンチテーゼ

 2a自然と人為:自然の模倣;自然との協力

 2b自然としきたり:自然状態と社会的な状態

 2c自然と教育(生まれと育ち):先天的または生まれつきのものと後天的なもの;第二の性質としての習慣

 2d自然と暴力的な運動

 2e自然なものと、不自然なものや奇怪なもの:正常と異常

 2f自然の秩序と自由の秩序:現象的な世界と実体的な世界;自然と精神のアンチテーゼ

3自然の秩序

 3a自然の原理と法則:自然の合理性;エントロピー

 3b自然の秩序における連続性と階層性

 3c自然と因果関係

 (1)通常の出来事と偶然の出来事の区別:自然の斉一性

 (2)自発性や自由と区別される自然による決定

 (3)自然における目的論:究極的な原因の作用

 (4)自然の過程に関する神聖な因果関係:自然の保護;摂理;奇跡と魔法

4自然や自然的なものの知識

 4a定義の対象としての自然や本質

 4b多様なタイプの科学に関する自然:理論的な科学と実践的な科学;自然哲学や科学、数学、形而上学

 4c歴史の対象としての自然

5正しさやと良さの基準としての自然、または自然的なもの

 5a人間の善に関する人間本性

 5b財産と富に関する自然な傾向と自然な要望

6宗教、神学、詩における自然

 6a自然の擬人化や崇拝

 6b人間の生活における自然と恵み

 

60 Nature

「Great Books 2」p187-188

1. Conceptions of nature

 1a. Nature as the intrinsic source of a thing's properties and behavior

  (1) The distinction between essential and individual nature: generic or specific properties, and individual, contingent accidents

  (2) Nature or essence in relation to matter and form

 1b. Nature as the universe or the totality of things: the identification of God and nature; the distinction between natura naturans and natura naturata

 1c. Nature as the complex of the objects of sense: the realm of things existing under the determination of universal laws

2. The antitheses of nature or the natural

 2a. Nature and art: the imitation of nature; cooperation with nature

 2b. Nature and convention: the state of nature and the state of society

 2c. Nature and nurture: the innate or native and the acquired; habit as second nature

 2d. Natural and violent motion

 2e. The natural and the unnatural or monstrous: the normal and the abnormal

 2f. The order of nature and the order of freedom: the phenomenal and the noumenal worlds; the antithesis of nature and spirit

3. The order of nature

 3a. The maxims and laws of nature: the rationality of nature; entropy

 3b. Continuity and hierarchy in the order of nature

 3c. Nature and causality

  (1) The distinction between the regular and the chance event: the uniformity of nature

  (2) The determinations of nature distinguished from the voluntary or free

  (3) Teleology in nature: the operation of final causes

  (4) Divine causality in relation to the course of nature: the preservation of nature; providence; miracles and magic

4. knowledge of nature or the natural

 4a. Nature or essence as an object of definition

 4b. Nature in relation to diverse types of science: the theoretical and the practical scieces; natural philosophy or science, mathematics, and metaphysics

 4c. Nature as an object of history

5. Nature or the natural as the standard of the right and the good

 5a. Human nature in relation to the good for man

 5b. Natural inclinations and natural need with respect to property and wealth

6. Nature in religion, theology, and poetry

 6a. The personification or worship of nature

 6b. Nature and grace in human life