シントピコンの「トピックの見取り図」を和訳してみた(その7)

 本記事では、アイデア=大項目の61~70までの「トピックの見取り図」の和訳を載せている。

 詳しい説明はこちら。

kozakashiku.hatenablog.com

 

 —目次—

 

61必然性と偶然性

1必然性と偶然性の意味:可能なものと不可能なもの

2必然的な、あるいは偶然的な存在や実在

 2a必然的な存在としての、独立なものや無条件に存在するもの:原因によらないもの、または自己を原因とするもの;本質と存在の同一性

 2b必然的な存在の実在についての議論:論理的必然性と存在論的必然性の問題

 2c存在における必然性に関する可変性

 2d性質、本質的でない性質、形態に関する、必然的なものと偶然的なもの

3変化の領域における必然性と偶然性:運と決定論

 3a本質的な原因と非本質的な原因の区別:偶然的な結果;偶然性と運

 3b偶然的な出来事の必然性:絶対的な必然性、仮説的な必然性、条件付きの必然性;実質的、本質的な原因と、究極的または形式的な原因による要請

 3c現象的な順序における偶然性の根拠:真の不確定性vs決定不可能性

4思考の領域における必然性と偶然性

 4a知識の領域としての必然的なもの、意見の対象としての偶然的なもの:確実性、懐疑、蓋然性;必然的な真実

 4b信念の原因としての実質的な必然性

 4c未来の偶然的なものに関する判断の真実性

 4d数学的な必然性:数学の対象や数学的な推論における必然性

 4e論理的な分析における必然性と偶然性

 (1)命題や判断の様相様相的反対

 (2)推論における様相:推論の論理的必然性;前提と結論の必然性と偶然性

5人間の生活と社会における必然性と偶然性

 5a人間の行動における自由と必然性:自発的なものと強制的なもの

 (1)意志の要請:その自由の範囲

 (2)必然的な義務と偶然的な義務を表現するものとしての、定言命法仮言命法

 (3)必然性の知や受容としての人間の自由

 5b家族と国家の必然性:その形態と制度の偶然性

 5c法における自然的なものと慣習的なものに関する必然性と偶然性

 5d奴隷制、貧困、戦争、犯罪の必然性や不可避性

 5e経済的な必需品や贅沢品

 5f歴史における必然性と偶然性

 

61 Necessity and Contingency

「Great Books 2」p205-206

1. The meaning of necessity and contingency: the possible and the impossible

2. Necessary and contingent being or existence

 2a. The independent or unconditioned as the necessarily existent: the uncaused or self-caused; the identity of essence and existence

 2b. The argument for the existence of a necessary being: the problem of logical and ontological necessity

 2c. Mutability in relation to necessity in being

 2d. The necessary and contingent with respect to properties, accidents, and modes

3. Necessity and contingency in the realm of change: chance and determinism

 3a.The distinction between the essential and the accidental cause: the contingent effect; contingency and chance

 3b. The necessity of contingent events: absolute and hypothetical or conditional necessity; necessitation by efficient or material and final or formal causes

 3c. The grounds of contingency in the phenomenal order: real indeterminacy versus indeterminability

4. Necessity and contingency in the realm of thought

 4a. The necessary as the domain of knowledge, the contingent as the object of opinion: certainty, doubt, and probability; necessary truths

 4b. Practical necessity as a cause of belief

 4c. The truth of judgments concerning future contingents

 4d. Mathematical necessity: necessity in the objects of mathematics and in mathematical reasoning

 4e. Necessity and contingency in logical analysis

  (1) The modality of propositions or judgments: modal opposition

  (2) Modality in reasoning: the logical necessity of inference; the necessity and contingency of premises and conclusions

5. Necessity and contingency in human life and society

 5a. Liberty and necessity in human conduct: the voluntary and the compulsory

  (1) The necessitation of the will: the range of its freedom

  (2) Categorical and hypothetical imperatives as expressing necessary and contingent obligations

  (3) Human freedom as knowledge or acceptance of necessity

 5b. The necessity of family and state: the contingency of their forms and institutions

 5c. Necessity and contingency in relation to the natural and conventional in law

 5d. The necessity or inevitability of slavery, poverty, war, or crime

 5e. Economic necessities or luxuries

 5f. Necessity and contingency in history

 

62寡頭制

1寡頭制:寡頭制の原理と類型

2寡頭制と君主制、貴族制、民主制の関係

3寡頭制の不安定性

  3a寡頭制を転覆する革命的変化:専制や民主制への変化

  3b革命に対する寡頭制の擁護

4寡頭制の擁護:政治的な権利と財産の特権

5寡頭制と富裕者の政治権力への非難

  5a市民権や公職に関する特権の基盤としての財産への反対

  5b寡頭制の性質:財産を持った人; 資本家

  5c政治的な手段としての経済的な地位と権力:階級闘争に関する寡頭制

6寡頭制の歴史的な観察:寡頭制の盛衰

 

62 Oligarchy

「Great Books 2」p219

1. The oligarchic constitution: the principles and types of oligarchy

2. The relation of oligarchy to monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy

3. The instability of oligarch government

 3a. The revolutionary changes to which oligarchy is subject: the change to despotism or democracy

 3b. The preservation of oligarchies against revolution

4. The defense of oligarchy: the political rights and privileges of property

5. The attack on oligarchy and on the political power of wealth

 5a. The objection to property as a basis for privilege with regard to citizenship or public office

 5b. The character of the oligarch: the man of property; the capitalist

 5c. Economic status and power as a political instrument: oligarchy in relation to the class war

6. Historical observations of oligarchy: the rise and fall of oligarchies

 

63一と多

1超越的なもの:絶対的なもの;存在、自然、宇宙の単一性

 1a一と多の関係:一より多が生じること

 1b神と世界の単一性または二元性:神の内在性と超越性

 1c普遍と特定に関する一と多:抽象的な普遍と具体的な普遍

2単一性の形態:数的単一性、本質的単一性、神の単一性の比較

 2a数的単一性、または数的同一性:ナンバーワン

 2b分割不可能なもの、または単純なものの単一性:個々のもの、点、原子、質

 2c部分から構成されるものの、複雑な統一性:分割できないものと分割されていないものの区別

3全体、あるいは複雑な統一体の種類

 3a量的な全体:物質や運動における単一性

 (1)量的な全体の連続性

 (2)運動の単一性と分割可能性

 (3)物質の単一性と分割可能性

 (4)時間と空間の単一性と分割可能性

 3b自然の全体、または本質的な全体:存在や自然の単一性

 (1)本質的な単一性と偶然的な単一性の区別

 (2)自然物と、人工の構成物や集合体との、統一性の比較:人工の全体

 (3)物質と形の単一性

 (4)肉体と魂、物質と精神、延長と思惟の複合体としての人間の単一性

 (5)人間、あるいは自己の単一性:人間の力の秩序;分裂した人格

4精神の領域での単一性:思考や知識の単一性

 4a精神や知性、認知能力、意識の単一性

 4b感覚体験の単一性:注意の単一性;統覚の超越的な単一性

 4c思考や理解における単一性:複雑な考えと定義の単一性;用語、判断、演繹の単一性

 4d科学の単一性:個々の科学の単一性

 4e知識の対象としての一と多、あるいは単純なものと複雑なもの:全体と部分に関する学習の順序

 4f知る者と知られる者、または主体と客体の単一性

5道徳的な問題や政治的な問題における単一性

 5a美徳の単一性と、多くの美徳

 5b最終的な目的の単一性:中間的な目的や手段の複数性

 5c倫理的な領域における、主観的意志と客観的道徳の単一性

 5d家族の単一性と国家の単一性:政治的または社会的統一の限界

 5e主権の単一性:その分割可能性、または分割不可能性;連邦の問題

6超自然的な秩序の単一性

 6a神の単一性と単純さ

 6b三位一体

 6c受肉の単一性

 

63 One and Many

「Great Books 2」p230-231

1. The transcendental one: the Absolute; the unity of being, of nature, of the universe

 1a. The relation of the one and the many: emanation of the many from the one

 1b. The unity or duality of God and the world: the immanence and transcendence of God

 1c. The one and the many in relation to the universal and the particular: the abstract and the concrete universal

2. The modes of unity: comparison of numerical, essential, and divine unity

 2a. Numerical unity or identity: the number one

 2b. The unity of the indivisible or the simple: the individual thing, the point, the atom, the quality

 2c. The complex unity of a whole composed of parts: the distinction between the indivisible and the undivided

3. Kinds of wholes or complex unities

 3a. Quantitative wholes: oneness in matter or motion

  (1) The continuity of a quantitative whole

  (2) The unity and divisibility of a motion

  (3) The unity and divisibility of matter

  (4) The unity and divisibility of time and space

 3b. Natural or essential wholes: the oneness of a being or a nature

  (1) The distinction between essential and accidental unity

  (2) The comparison of the unity of natural things with man-made compositions or aggregations: artificial wholes

  (3) The unity of a substance and of substantial form

  (4) The unity of man as composite of body and soul, matter and spirit, extension and thought

  (5) The unity of the human person or the self: the order of man's powers; the split personality

4. Unity in the realm of mind: unity in thought or knowledge

 4a. The unity of mind or intellect, the cognitive faculties, or consciousness

 4b. The unity of sense-experience: the unity of attention; the transcendental unity of apperception

 4c. Unity in thinking or understanding: the unity of complex ideas and definitions; the unity of the term, the judgment, and the syllogism

 4d. The unity of science: the unity of particular sciences

 4e. The one and the many, or the simple and the complex, as objects of knowledge: the order of learning with respect to wholes and parts

 4f. The unity of knower and known, or of subject and object

5. Unity in moral and political matters

 5a. The unity of virtue and the many virtues

 5b. The unity of the last end: the plurality of intermediate ends or means

 5c. The unity of subjective will and objective morality in the ethical realm

 5d. The unity of the family and the unity of the state: the limits of political or social unification

 5e. The unity of sovereignty: its divisibility or indivisibility; the problem of federal union

6. Unity in the supernatural order

 6a. The unity and simplicity of God

 6b. The unity of Trinity

 6c. The unity of the Incarnation

 

64意見

1知識と意見の異なる対象:存在と生成;普遍的なものと特別なもの;必然的なものと偶然的なもの

2知識と意見の、ふるまいと源泉における違い

 2a意見の形成に対する感情の影響:願望的思考、合理化、偏見

 2b意見のふるまいにおいて同意をもたらすものとしての意志

 2c意見に関する推論と議論:証明と説得、原理と仮説、公理と公準の比較

 2d意見の源泉としての理性、経験、権威

3意見、知識、真

 3a知識の真実性と正しい意見の真実性:得る方法、安定性、教えやすさにおける違い

 3b確実な知識と蓋然的な知識、妥当な知識と妥当でない知識:確実性の程度;同意の形態

 3c人間による意見の判断に対する、懐疑的な格下げ

4意見、信念、信仰

 4a超自然的信念や宗教的信念と、科学や意見との比較

 4b根拠や正当な理由のない意見としての、迷信的信念、独断的信念への批判

5意見の領域における自由

 5a意見の表明に関する権利と義務

 5b議論の自由の長所と短所:出版、報道の自由の役割

6倫理の領域における意見

 6a意見の問題としての善と悪:一般的な意見を反映する習慣や慣習としての倫理的基準

 6b特定の事例に適用される倫理的原則の不正確さ

7世論の社会的、政治的な重要性

 7a多数意見の価値:専門家による決定と総意による決定の区別

 7b多数決の利点と危険性:数の誤った重みづけに対する保護

 

64 Opinion

「Great Books 2」p246-247

1. The different object of knowledge and opinion: being and becoming; universal and particular; the necessary and the contingent

2. The difference between the acts and sources of knowing and opining

 2a. The influence of the emotions on the formation of opinion: wishful thinking, rationalization, prejudice

 2b. The will as cause of assent in acts of opinion

 2c. Reasoning and argument concerning matters of opinion: comparison of demonstration and persuasion, principles and assumptions, axioms and postulates

 2d. Reason, experience, and authority as sources of opinion

3. Opinion, knowledge, and truth

3a. The truth of knowledge and of right opinion: their difference with respect to manner of acquisition, stability, and teachability

3b. Certain and probable, adequate and inadequate knowledge: degrees of certitude; modes of assent

3c. The skeptical reduction of human judgments to opinion

4. Opinion, belief, and faith

 4a. Comparison of supernatural or religious faith with science and opinion

 4b. Criticism of superstitious or dogmatic belief as opinion without foundation or warrant

5. Freedom in the sphere of opinion

 5a. Rights and duties with respect to the expression of opinion

 5b. Advantages and disadvantages of freedom of discussion: the role of a free press

6. Opinion in the realm of morals

 6a. Good and evil as matters of opinion: moral standards as customs or conventions reflecting prevalent opinion

 6b. The inexactitude of moral principles as applied to particular cases

7. The social and political significance of public opinion

 7a. The value of the majority opinion: the distinction between matters to be determined by the expert or by a consensus

 7b. Majority rule, its merits and dangers: protections against the false weight of numbers

 

65対立

1論理における対立

 1a対立の用語の種類:対比、矛盾、欠如、否定

 1b矛盾の分析:矛盾になり得る用語の種類;両極の中間項の存在あるいは不在と矛盾

 1c論理的分割の原則としての、対立の排他性

 (1)二分割:正と負

 (2)種差による属の分割:種の不一致

 1d提案や判断の対立

 (1)対立の四角形:矛盾、反対、小反対

 (2)様相的な対立:必然的なものとかつ偶然的なもの

 1e推論と証明における対立:弁証法的な議論の対立;超越的弁証法の二律背反

2対立の形而上学的な重要性

 2a共存を制限するものとしての対立:存在の原理としての無矛盾;相補性の原理

 2b存在、精神、魂の領域における対立:一と多;テーゼ、アンチテーゼ、ジンテーゼ弁証法的三幅対

 2c存在の対立物としての非存在

 2d世界における、あるいは神との関係における、善と悪の対立

 2e神の性質における対立の調停:絶対なものにおける全ての矛盾の総合

3自然の領域における対立

 3a変化の原理としての矛盾

 3b元素や体液の理論における質の矛盾

 3c運動と静止、逆の運動の対立

 3d物理的な力の対立とその解決

 3e生存競争:種の競争

4心理的秩序、および倫理的秩序における反対や対立

 4a理性と情熱の対立

 4b対立する感情、体液、本能、習慣

 4c抑圧の原因、あるいは神経症の要因としての葛藤

 4e人間生活における対立:対立する人間の形態と生活様式

5社会や歴史における対立

 5a商業における競争と政治における派閥の競争

 5b階級闘争:金持ちと貧乏人、有産階級と無産階級、資本家と労働者、生産者と消費者の対立

 5c内戦と国家間戦争の不可避性:紛争を解決する手段

 5d生産の原理、または進歩の源泉としての対立や争い

 

65 Opposition

「Great Books 2」p261-262

1. Opposition in logic

 1a. Kinds of opposition among terms: correlation, contrariety, privation, negation

 1b. The analysis of contrariety: the kinds of terms which can be contrary; contrariety with and without intermediates between extremes

 1c. The exclusiveness of opposites as a principle of logical division

  (1) Dichotomous division: positive and negative terms

  (2) Division of a genus by differentia: the contrariety of species

 1d. The opposition of propositions or judgments

  (1) The square of opposition: contradictories, contraries, subcontraries

  (2) Modal opposition: the necessary and the contingent

 1e. Opposition in reasoning and proof: the conflict of dialectical arguments; the antinomies of a transcendental dialectic

2. The metaphysical significance of opposition

 2a. Opposition as limiting coexistence: noncontradiction as a principle of being; the principle of complementarity

 2b. Opposites in the realm of being, mind, or spirit: the one and the many; the dialectical triad of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis

 2c. Nonbeing as the opposite of being

 2d. The opposition of good and evil in the world and in relation to God

 2e. The reconciliation of opposites in the divine nature: the synthesis of all contraries in the Absolute

3. Opposition in the realm of physical nature

 3a. The contraries as principles of change

 3b. contrariety of quality in the theory of the elements or humors

 3c. The opposition of motion and rest, and of contrary motions

 3d. The opposition of physical forces and its resolution

 3e. The struggle for existence: the competition of species

4. Opposition or conflict in the psychological and moral order

 4a. The conflict of reason and the passions

 4b. Conflicting emotions, humors, instincts, or habits

 4c. Conflict as the cause of repression and as a factor in neurotic disorders

 4e. Conflict in human life: opposed types of men and modes of life

5. Conflict in society and history

 5a. Competition in commerce and the rivalry of factions in politics

 5b. The class war: the opposition of the rich and the poor, the propertied and the propertyless, capital and labor, producers and consumers

 5c. The inevitability of civil strife and war between states: the means of settling disputes

 5d. Opposition or strife as a productive principle or source of progress

 

66哲学

1哲学の定義と範囲

 1a哲学と神学、宗教との関係

 1b哲学と数学の関係

 1c哲学と実験科学、経験科学との関係

 1d哲学と神話、詩、歴史との関係

2哲学の区分

 2a理論的哲学や思弁的哲学と、実践的哲学や倫理的哲学の区別;自然哲学と社会哲学の区別

 2b思弁的哲学の部門:自然哲学の区分

 2c実践的哲学や道徳的哲学の性質と部門:経済学、倫理学政治学、法学;詩学や芸術理論

3哲学の方法

 3a経験と常識における哲学の基礎

 3b第一原理や定義に対する哲学者の主張

 3c哲学的思考のプロセス:帰納、直観、定義、証明、推論、分析、演繹的推論

 3d哲学の方法論の再編成:哲学における言語の役割

4哲学の利用

 4a哲学の目的、機能、価値についての多様な見解

 4b哲学的な生活様式:熟慮と幸福

 4c倫理的規律としての哲学:哲学の慰め

 4d哲学の社会的役割:哲学者と政治家;哲人王

5哲学者の性格と教育:哲学者であることの難しさ

6哲学者とその業績に対する賞賛と非難

 6a科学者あるいは知恵を持った人としての哲学者:真実への愛とその探求

 6b頑固な人としての哲学者:詭弁と独断、無価値な議論、終わらない論争

 6c理性を持った人としての哲学者:理性の限界;経験や信仰による補完

 6d理論的な人、あるいは洞察力のある人としての哲学者:実践の軽視;人事や市場からの撤退

7哲学の歴史の観察:思想に関連する哲学者の人生

 

66 Philosophy

「Great Books 2」p278-279

1.The definition and scope of philosophy

 1a. The relation of philosophy to theology or religion

 1b. The relation of philosophy to mathematics

 1c. The relation of philosophy to experimental or empirical science

 1d. The relation of philosophy to myth, poetry, and history

2. The divisions of philosophy

 2a. The distinction between theoretical or speculative and practical or moral philosophy; the distinction between natural and civil philosophy

 2b. The branches of speculative philosophy: the divisions of natural philosophy

 2c. The nature and branches of practical or moral philosophy: economics, ethics, politics, jurisprudence; poetics or the theory of art

3. The method of philosophy

 3a. The foundations of philosophy in experience and common sense

 3b. The philosopher's appeal to first principles and to definitions

 3c. The processes of philosophical thought: induction, intuition, definition, demonstration, reasoning, analysis, and synthesis

 3d. The methodological reformation of philosophy: the role of language in philosophy

4. The uses of philosophy

 4a. Diverse conceptions of the aim, function, and value of philosophy

 4b. The philosophic mode of life: contemplation and happiness

 4c. Philosophy as a moral discipline: the consolation of philosophy

 4d. The social role of philosophy: the philosopher and the statesman; the philosopher king

5. The character and training of the philosopher: the difficulty of being a philosopher

6. Praise and dispraise of the philosopher and his work

 6a. The philosopher as a man of science or wisdom: the love and search for truth

 6b. The philosopher as a man of opinion: sophistry and dogmatism, idle disputation, perpetual controversy

 6c. The philosopher as a man of reason: the limits of reason; its supplementation by experience or faith

 6d. The philosopher as a man of theory or vision: neglect of practical; withdrawal from the affairs of men and the marketplace

7. Observations on the history of philosophy: the lives of the philosophers in relation to their thought

 

67物理学

1生成と、自然や変化の秩序の一般理論としての物理学:哲学的物理学、自然の哲学、純粋物理学、合理的物理学
 1a自然の哲学と形而上学弁証法との関係
 1b自然の哲学と数学の関係:自然哲学における数学的方法と数学的原理
2実験物理学と実験自然科学:実験物理学と哲学的物理学との関係
 2a自然哲学からの定義、区別、原理の導出:科学者の形而上学
 2b哲学的物理学と経験的物理学における原因の扱い:記述と説明、理論と予測
3数理的物理学:数学的定式化に関連する観察と測定
4自然の研究における実験方法
 4a単純な観察と実験の違い:理想的な、現実から離れた物理システムを作る技術
 4b実験による発見:実験からの帰納的一般化;実験における理論や仮説の役割
 4c実験によるテストと検証:重要な実験
 4d実験による測定:観察者と現象の関係;数学的公式の適用
5物理学の有用性:機械の発明;工学の技術;自然の統御
6物理学における革命の歴史:特殊相対性理論一般相対性理論量子力学

 

67 Physics

「Great Books 2」p295-296

1. Physics as the general theory of becoming and the order of nature or change: philosophical physics, the philosophy of nature, pure or rational physics

 1a. The relation of the philosophy of nature to metaphysics and dialectic

 1b. The relation of the philosophy of nature to mathematics: mathematical method and mathematical principles in natural philosophy

2. Experimental physics and the empirical natural science: the relation of experimental and philosophical physics

 2a. The derivation of definitions, distinctions, and principles from the philosophy of nature: the metaphysics of the scientist

 2b. The treatment of causes in philosophical and empirical physics: description and explanation, theory and prediction

3. Mathematical physics: observation and measurement in relation to mathematical formulations

4. The experimental method in the study of nature

 4a. The distinction between simple observation and experimentation: the art of creating ideal or isolated physical systems

 4b. Experimental discovery: inductive generalization from experiment; the role of theory or hypothesis in experimentation

 4c. Experimental testing and verification: the crucial experiment

 4d. Experimental measurement: the relation between the observer and the phenomena; the application of mathematical formulas

5. The utility of physics: the invention of machines; the techniques of engineering; the mastery of nature

6. The history of the revolution in physics: the special and general theories of relativity; quantum mechanics

 

68快と苦

1快と苦の性質

2快と苦の原因

3快と苦の影響と付随物

4快と苦の種類:快の質の違い

 4a感情の領域における快と不快:喜びと悲しみ、歓喜と悲嘆

 4b感覚的な快:感覚の感情的な質

 4c知的な快:熟考や熟慮の快

 (1)自然や芸術の美しさにおける快:利害と無関係な快

 (2)学習や知識に関する快と苦

 4d遊びと娯楽の快

 4e苦の種類:感覚における苦と喪失や剥奪の苦

5快の量:快の測定;快の限界

6快と善

 6a唯一の善としての、または他の全てのものにおける善の尺度としての快

 6b多くの善の中の一つとしての快:欲望の一つの対象としての快

 6c良い快と悪い快:高級な快と低級な快

 6d善の付属物としての快:欲望の満足

 6e本質的に悪いもの、または倫理的に中立なものとしての快

7快と幸福:それらの区別と関係

 7a愛と友情に関連する快と苦

 7b他の生活様式とは対照的な、快の生活:禁欲的な生活

8快の規律

 8a美徳に関連する快と苦:自制の抑制と精神力の耐用性

 8b快と、義務や正義の責務との対立:快楽原則と現実原則

 8c快と苦の領域における倒錯や堕落:サディズムマゾヒズム

9法律による快の制限

10快と苦の社会的有用性

 10a道徳的訓練や精神的訓練における、親や教師による快と苦の利用

 10b説得や統治における、演説者や政治家による快と苦の利用

 

68 Pleasure and Pain

「Great Books 2」p309-310

1. The nature of pleasure and pain

2. The causes of pleasure and pain

3. The effects or concomitants of pleasure and pain

4. The kinds of pleasure and pain: different qualities of pleasure

 4a. The pleasant and unpleasant in the sphere of emotion: joy and sorrow, delight and grief

 4b. Sensuous pleasure: the affective quality of sensations

 4c. Intellectual pleasure: the pleasures of reflection and contemplation

  (1) Pleasure in the beauty of nature or art: disinterested pleasure

  (2) The pleasure and pain of learning and knowledge

 4d. The pleasures of play and diversion

 4e. The kinds of pain: the pain of sense and the pain of loss or deprivation

5. The quantity of pleasure: the weighing of pleasures; the limits of pleasure

6. Pleasure and the good

 6a. Pleasure as the only good or as the measure of goodness in all other things

 6b. Pleasure as one good among many: pleasure as one object of desire

 6c. Good and bad pleasures: higher and lower pleasures

 6d. Pleasure as the accompaniment of goods possessed: the satisfaction of desire

 6e. Pleasure as intrinsically evil or morally indifferent

7. Pleasure and happiness: their distinction and relation

 7a. Pleasure and pain in relation to love and friendship

 7b. The life of pleasure contrasted with other modes of life: the ascetic life

8. The discipline of pleasure

 8a. Pleasure and pain in relation to virtue: the restraints of temperance and the endurance of courage

 8b. The conflict between pleasure and duty, or the obligations of justice: the pleasure principle and the reality principle

 8c. Perversions or degradations in the sphere of pleasure and pain: sadism and masochism

9. The regulation of pleasures by law

10. The social utility of pleasure and pain

 10a. The employment of pleasure and pain by parent or teacher in moral and mental training

 10b. The use of pleasure and pain by orator or statesman in persuasion and government

 

69詩

1詩の性質:他の芸術との違い

 1a模倣としての詩の理論:模倣の喜び

 1b詩や他の芸術における模倣の目的、媒体、方法

2詩の起源と展開:神話と伝説の素材

3詩人のインスピレーションや天賦の才:経験と想像力の役割;詩的な伝統の影響

4詩の主要な種類:それぞれの相対的な卓越性

 4a叙事詩と劇詩

 4b悲劇と喜劇:劇

5知識に関連する詩

 5a教育するための、あるいは楽しませるための詩の目的:教師としての詩人の虚勢や欺瞞

 5b歴史や哲学と対比したときの詩:詩人への非難と擁護

6詩と感情

 6a詩における感情の表現

 6b詩による感情の喚起と浄化:哀れみや恐れのカタルシス

7詩的な物語の要素

 7aプロット:最重要な要素;その構築

 7bキャラクターの役割:プロットとの関係

 7c詩の要素としての思考と言葉遣い

 7d劇におけるスペクタクルと歌

8詩学の科学:芸術の規則と批評の原理

 8a物語の構造に関する重要な基準と芸術的な規則

 (1)詩的な統一性:叙事詩と劇詩における統一性の比較

 (2)詩的な真実:真実らしさやもっともらしさ;可能なこと、蓋然的なこと、必然的なこと

 (3)プロットの展開における認識と逆転の重要性

 8b詩の言語に関する重要な基準と芸術的な規則:散文と詩の区別;スタイルにおける卓越性の評価

 8c詩と神話の解釈

9詩の倫理的、政治的重要性

 9a精神と人格に対する詩の影響:教育におけるその役割

 9b詩の検閲に関する問題

 

69 Poetry

「Great Books 2」p328

1. The nature of poetry: its distinction from other arts

 1a. The theory of poetry as imitation: the enjoyment of imitation

 1b. The object, medium, and manner of imitation in poetry and other arts

2. The origin and development of poetry: the materials of myth and legend

3. The inspiration or genius of the poet: the role of experience and imagination; the influence of the poetic tradition

4. The major kinds of poetry: their comparative excellence

 4a. Epic and dramatic poetry

 4b. Tragedy and comedy: the theater

5. Poetry in relation to knowledge

 5a. The aim of poetry to instruct as well as to delight: the pretensions or deceptions of the poet as teacher

 5b. Poetry contrasted with history and philosophy: the dispraise and defense of the poet

6. Poetry and emotion

 6a. The expression of emotion in poetry

 6b. The arousal and purgation of the emotions by poetry: the catharsis of pity and fear

7. The elements of poetic narrative

 7a. Plot: its primacy; its construction

 7b. The role of character: its relation to plot

 7c. Thought and diction as elements of poetry

 7d. Spectacle and song in drama

8. The science of poetics: rules of art and principles of criticism

 8a. Critical standards and artistic rules with respect to narrative structure

  (1) The poetic unities: comparison of epic and dramatic unity

  (2) Poetic truth: verisimilitude or plausibility; the possible, the probable, and the necessary

  (3) The significance of recognitions and reversals in the development of plot

 8b. Critical standards and artistic rules with respect to the language of poetry: the distinction between prose and verse; the measure of excellence in style

 8c. The interpretation of poetry and myth

9. The moral and political significance of poetry

 9a. The influence of poetry on mind and character: its role in education

 9b. The issue concerning the censorship of poetry

 

70原理

1現実の秩序における原理

 1a原理、要素、原因の区別

 1b現実の秩序における原理の存在、数、種類

 1c思考の原理の形而上学的な重要性

2知識の秩序における原理の種類

 2a単純な理解における知識の起源

 (1)原理としての感覚やアイデア

 (2)原理としての定義

 (3)定義の原理としての定義不可能なもの

 2b原理としての命題や判断

 (1)知覚の直観的真実性:現象の直接的で感覚的な知識;自明な個々の事実

 (2)理解の直観的真実性:公理や自明の真実;原理としてのアプリオリな判断

 (3)本質的、規定的な原理:理性の格率

3哲学、科学、弁証法における第一原理や公理

 3a原理と証明

 (1)公理の証明不可能性:精神の自然な習慣

 (2)公理の間接的な防衛

 (3)証明の公理への依存:同一律矛盾律の批判的適用

 3b原理と帰納:経験からの直観的な帰納としての公理;帰納的一般化の諸段階

 3c仮定、仮説、想定に関連する公理

 (1)一般的な第一原理、または一般的な概念と、特定の主題や科学における原理との違い

 (2)知識と意見、あるいは科学と弁証法を区別するための基礎としての、公理と想定、仮説と原理の違い

 (3)原理の性質による科学の区別と順序

4実践的な順序における第一原理:行動や倫理の原理;実践理性の原理

 4a原理としての目的、または第一原理としての最終的な目的:最も実践的な順序における原理としての欲望

 4b倫理における自然法定言命法

5第一原理や公理の懐疑的な否定:人間の普遍的な総意を導き出すあらゆる命題の否定

 

70 Principle

「Great Books 2」p343-344

1. Principles in the order of reality

 1a. The differentiation of principle, element, and cause

 1b. The being, number, and kinds of principles in the order of reality

 1c. The metaphysical significance of the principles of thought

2. kinds of principles in the order of knowledge

 2a. The origin of knowledge in simple apprehensions

  (1) Sensations or ideas as principles

  (2) Definitions as principles

  (3) Indefinables as principles of definition

 2b. Propositions or judgments as principles

  (1) Immediate truths of perception: direct sensitive knowledge of appearances; evident particular facts

  (2) Immediate truths of understanding: axioms or self-evident truths; a priori judgements as principles

  (3) Constitutive and regulative principles: the maxims of reason

3. First principles or axioms in philosophy, science, dialectic

 3a. Principles and demonstration

  (1) The indemonstrability of axioms: natural habits of the mind

  (2) The indirect defense of axioms

  (3) The dependence of demonstration on axioms: the critical application of the principles of identity and contradiction

 3b. Principles and induction: axioms as intuitive inductions from experience; stages of inductive generalization

 3c. Axioms in relation to postulates, hypotheses, or assumptions

  (1) The distinction between first principles in general, or common notions, and the principles of a particular subject matter or science

  (2) The difference between axioms and assumptions, hypotheses and principles, as a basic for the distinction between knowledge and opinion, or science and dialectic

  (3) The distinction and order of the sciences according to the character of their principles

4. First principles in the practical order: the principles of action or morality:; the principles of the practical reason

 4a. Ends as principles, and the last ends as first principles: right appetite as a principle in the best practical order

 4b. The natural moral law and the categorical imperative

5. The skeptical denial of first principles or axioms: the denial that any propositions elicit the universal assent of mankind