シントピコンの「トピックの見取り図」を和訳してみた(その8)

 本記事では、アイデア=大項目の71~80までの「トピックの見取り図」の和訳を載せている。

 詳しい説明はこちら。

kozakashiku.hatenablog.com

 

—目次—

 

71進歩

1歴史の哲学における進歩という考え

 1a進歩の理論における神の摂理と必要性:精神や物質の弁証法的発展;進歩の源泉としての対立

 1b楽観論や改善説:人間の完全性の教義

 1c進歩に対する懐疑的、あるいは悲観的な否定:過去としての黄金時代;歴史の周期的な運動;文化の衰退

2生物学的進化論における進歩の考え

3経済の進歩

 3a豊かさの増大:進歩の要因としての労働の分業

 3b労働の状況と条件の改善:革命と改革の目標

 3c科学と発明を通した、自然の力の人間による進歩的な克服

4政治における進歩

 4a政治制度の発明と改善:進歩に関する政治秩序の維持

 4b国家の理念の進歩的な実現

 4c政治的な自由の発展:市民権と公民権の獲得;条件の平等に向けた進歩

5社会の進歩に対立する力:変化や新規性に対する感情的な反発;政治的保守主義

6知的進歩や文化的進歩:その源泉と障害;文化的進歩の生物学的進化との類比

 6a芸術における進歩

 6b哲学と科学における進歩

 6c知的伝統の利用と批判:誤りから真実をふるいにかけること;過去の権威の受け止め方

 6d学術における学習の進歩と方法の改善のための計画

 6e真実の進歩的な発見に不可欠なものとしての、表現の自由と議論の自由

 

71 Progress

「Great Books 2」p357

1. The idea of progress in the philosophy of history

 1a. Providence and necessity in the theory of progress: the dialectical development of Spirit or matter; conflict as a source of progress

 1b. Optimism or meliorism: the doctrine of human perfectibility

 1c. Skeptical or pessimistic denials of progress: the golden age as past; the cyclical motion of history; the degeneration of cultures

2. The idea of progress in the theory of biological evolution

3. Economic progress

 3a. The increase of opulence: the division of labor as a factor in progress

 3b. The improvement of the status and conditions of labor: the goals of revolution and reform

 3c. Man's progressive conquest of the forces of nature through science and invention

4. Progress in politics

 4a. The invention and improvement of political institutions: the maintenance of political order in relation to progress

 4b. The progressive realization of the idea of the state

 4c. The growth of political freedom: the achievement of citizenship and civil rights; progress toward an equality of conditions

5. Forces operating against social progress: emotional opposition to change or novelty; political conservatism

6. intellectual or cultural progress: its sources and impediments; the analogy of cultural progress to biological evolution

 6a. Progress in the arts

 6b. Progress in philosophy and in the sciences

 6c. The use and criticism of the intellectual tradition: the sifting of truth from error; the reaction against the authority of the past

 6d. Plans for the advancement of learning and the improvement of method in the arts and sciences

 6e. Freedom of expression and discussion as indispensable to the progressive discovery of the truth

 

72予言

1予言の性質と力

 1a運命の読み、幸運の予告、未来の注視としての予言

 1b超自然的な霊感を受けた、神の摂理の過程の先見としての予言

 1c神の摂理の道具としての予言:道徳の教え手、あるいは政治的改革者としての予言者

 1d予言の成就の宗教的な重要性

2予言の職:先見的知識の所有

 2a来世の魂が持つ先見的知識

 2b予言の政治的公職:聖職者、占い師、神託

 2c予言の職のヘブライ的な概念:法と予言者;予言者としてのキリスト

3予言の種類と占いの道具

 3a 神託の制度:神託の、あるいは予言的な言説の解釈

 3b前兆と先触れ:天体上の兆候と地球上の兆候;予言の確認としての兆候

 3c夢、幻、天罰

 3d神の直接的な言葉による予言

4個々の予言

 4a契約の、あるいは約束の地

 4bエルサレムの破壊とイスラエルの離散:イスラエルの回復と神殿の再建

 4cメシアの到来:メシアの予言のヘブライキリスト教による読解

 4d主の再臨:審判の日、世界の終わり、千年紀

 4e世俗的な予言としての未来の予測

5予言の批判と拒否:真の予言と偽の予言の区別;不信心や迷信としての占星術や占いの非難

 

72 Prophecy

「Great Books 2」p370-371

1. The nature and power of prophecy

 1a. Prophecy as the reading of fate, the foretelling of fortune, the beholding of the future

 1b. Prophecy as supernaturally inspired foresight into the course of providence

 1c. Prophecy as the instrument of providence: prophets as moral teachers and political reformers

 1d. The religious significance of the fulfillment of prophecy

2. The vocation of prophecy: the possession of foreknowledge

 2a. The fore knowledge possessed by the spirits in the afterworld

 2b. The political office of prophecy: priests, soothsayers, oracles

 2c. The Hebraic conception of the prophetic vocation: the law and the prophets; Christ as prophet

3. The varieties of prophecy and the instruments of divination

 3a. The institution of oracls: the interpretation of oracular or prophetic utterances

 3b. Omens and portents: celestial and terrestrial signs; signs as confirmations of prophecy

 3c. Dreams, visions, visitations

 3d. Prophecy by the direct word of God

4. Particular prophecies

 4a. The Convenant and the Promised Land

 4b. The destruction of Jerusalem and the dispersion of Israel: the restoration of Israel and the rebuilding of the Temple

 4c. The coming of a Messiah: Hebraic and Christian readings of messianic prophecy

 4d. The second coming of the Lord: the Day of Judgement, the end of the world, and the millennium

 4e. Predictions of the future as secular prophecies

5. The criticism and rejection of prophecy: the distinction between true and false prophecy; the condemnation of astrology and divination as impiety r superstition

 

73慎重さ

1慎重さの性質:実践的な知恵として、熟慮の美徳や質として

2精神の美徳における慎重さの位置

 2a思弁的、あるいは哲学的な知恵とは区別された、実践的、あるいは政治的な知恵

 2b技芸と区別される慎重さ:生産や制作とは対照的な行動や活動

 2c慎重さと直観的な理性との、あるいは自然法則の理解との関係:個別のものの倫理的な認識

3慎重さと倫理的美徳の相互依存性:人間の行動において、熟慮、意志、感情が担う部分

 3a慎重さが正しい手段を選択をするための目的を決定するものとしての倫理的美徳:実践的な真実の基準としての正しい欲望

 3b倫理的美徳の形成と維持の要因としての慎重さ:相対的な、あるいは主観的な意味の決定

 3c慎重さの偽造としての利口さや巧妙さ:決疑論の乱用

 3d慎重さ、自制、節制

 3e軽率さの悪徳:軽率と過度の注意

4慎重さの領域

 4a慎重さの、我々の力の内にある範囲への限定

 4b慎重さの、目的ではなく、手段の検討への限定

5慎重な判断の性質

 5a慎重な選択の条件:助言、熟慮、判断

 5b選択の余地のある事項における実践理性のふるまい:実行や利用に繋がる決定と命令

 5c慎重さの格言

6共同体の公益に関する慎重さ

 6a政治的な慎重さ:君主や政治家、臣民や市民の慎重さ

 6b法学:法律の決定と事件の裁決における慎重さ

 

73 Prudence

「Great Books 2」p384-385

1. The nature of prudence: as practical wisdom, as a virtue or quality of the deliberative mind

2. The place of prudence among the virtues of the mind

 2a. Practical or political wisdom distinguished from speculative or philosophical wisdom

 2b. Prudence distinguished from art: action or doing contrasted with production or making

 2c. The relation of prudence to intuitive reason or to the understanding of the natural law: the moral perception of particulars

3. The interdependence of prudence and the moral virtues: the parts played by deliberation, will, and emotion in human conduct

 3a. Moral virtue as determining the end for which prudence makes a right choices of means: right desire as the standard of practical truth

 3b. Prudence as a factor in the formation and maintenance of moral virtue: the determination of the relative or subjective mean

 3c. Shrewdness or cleverness as the counterfeit of prudence: the abuses of casuistry

 3d. Prudence, continence, and temperance

 3e. The vices of imprudence: precipitance and undue caution

4. The sphere of prudence

 4a. The confinement of prudence to the things within our power

 4b. The restriction of prudence to the consideration of means rather than ends

5. The nature of a prudent judgement

 5a. The conditions of prudent choice: counsel, deliberation, judgement

 5b. The acts of the practical reason in matters open to choice: decision and command, leading to execution or use

 5c. The maxims of prudence

6. Prudence in relation to the common good of the community

 6a. Political prudence: the prudence of the prince or statesman, of the subject or citizen

 6b. Jurisprudence: prudence in the determination of laws and the adjudication of cases

 

74罰

1罰の一般理論

 1a罰の性質:感覚の痛みと喪失の痛み;監禁の効果

 1b罰の報復的な目的:同害報復;報復と復讐;誤りの訂正

 1c悪事を働く者を改心させるための罰

 1d罰の予防的な利用:悪事の抑止

2罰の条件としての個人的な責任:連帯責任の問題

 2a責任と罰に関する自由意志:罪や過失に関する自発性;偶発的なもの、過失的なもの、意図的なもの

 2b責任に関する正気、成熟、倫理的能力

3美徳と悪徳に関する罰

 3a倫理的人格の形成の要因としての報酬と罰

 3b悪徳それ自体の罰

 3c罪、悔恨と、罰の倫理的必要性

4犯罪と罰:政治的な手段としての罰

 4a法に不可欠な制裁としての、法律違反に対する罰

 4b国家が利用できる罰の形態

 (1)死刑

 (2)追放や排斥:投獄や監禁

 (3)強制労働や奴隷

 (4)残酷な罰や異常な罰:拷問と抑圧

 4c法的な罰の正義:実定法によって決定される罰の慣習

 4d罰の厳しさの程度:罰を犯罪に適合させること

5罪に対する罰

 5a呪いの起源と実現

 5b罪の報い:原罪の罰

 5c後悔の痛みと良心の呵責:罪の償い

 5d神の罰の形態:今世と来世、一時的なものと永遠

 5e神の罰の正義

 (1)地獄や死者の国における永遠の苦しみの正当化

 (2)煉獄における罪の償いの必要性

6罰に関する病理学的な動機づけ:罪や罪悪感の異常な感覚;罰を与えたり、罰に苦しんだりしたいというひねくれた欲望

 

74 Punishment

「Great Books 2」p399

1. The general theory of punishment

 1a. The nature of punishment: the pain of sense and the pain of loss; the effects of incarcerations

 1b. The retributive purpose of punishment: the lex talionis; retaliation and revenge; the righting of a wrong

 1c. Punishment for the sake of reforming the wrongdoer

 1d The preventive use of punishment: the deterrence of wrongdoing

2. Personal responsibility as a condition of just punishment: the problem of collective responsibility

 2a. Free will in relation to responsibility and punishment: voluntariness in relation to guilt or fault; the accidental, the negligent, and the intentional

 2b. Sanity, maturity, and moral competence in relation to responsibility 

3. Punishment in relation to virtue and vice

 3a. Rewards and punishments as factors in the formation of moral character 

 3b. Vice its own punishment

 3c. Guilt, repentance, and the moral need for punishment

4. Crime and punishment: punishment as a political instrument

 4a. Punishment for lawbreaking as a necessary sanction of law

 4b. The forms of punishment available to the state

  (1) The death penalty

  (2) Exile or ostracism: imprisonment or incarceration

  (3) Enforced labor or enslavement

  (4) Cruel and unusual punishments: torture and oppression

 4c. The justice of legal punishment: the conventionality of the punishments determined by positive law

 4d. Grades of severity in punishment: making the punishment fit the crime

5. The punishment for sin

 5a. The origin and fulfillment of curses

 5b. The wages of sin: the punishment of original sin

 5c. The pain of remorse and the torment of conscience: the atonement for sin

 5d. The modes of divine punishment: here and hereafter, temporal and eternal

 5e. The justice of divine punishment

  (1) The justification of eternal suffering in hell or hades

  (2) The necessity of expiation in purgatory

6. Pathological motivations with respect to punishment: abnormal sense of sin or guilt; perverse desires to inflict or suffer punishment

 

75質

 

1質の性質と存在:質と物質や物との関係;質の超越的なカテゴリー

2質の種類

 2a感覚可能な性質と不可能な性質:習慣、気質、力や能力、感情的な性質;本質的な質と非本質的な性質

 2b一次的な質と二次的な質:固有の感覚と共通の感覚の関連する区別

3質と量

 3a質と量の区別:それと、二次的質と一次的質の区別との関係

 3b限定された量としての形や図

 3c質の程度や量:強度と広がり;質の変化の量的な条件

 3d形、物質、物に関する質や量の優位性

4質の相互関係

 4a相関関係を含意する質

 4b質の対立:中間の程度の有無

5質の変化:変化の分析

6知識の対象としての質

 6a定義や抽象に関する質

 6b質の認識

 6c感覚の質の客観性:一次的質と二次的質の相対的な客観性

 

75 Quality

「Great Books 2」p415-416

1. The nature and existence of qualities: the relation of quality to substance or matter; the transcendental categories of quality

2. The kinds of quality

 2a. Sensible and nonsensible qualities: habits, dispositions, powers or capacities, and affective qualities; essential and accidental qualities

 2b. Primary and secondary qualities: the related distinction of proper and common sensibls

3. Quality and quantity

 3a. The distinction between quality and quantity: its relation to the distinction between secondary and primary qualities

 3b. Shape or figure as qualified quantity

 3c. The degrees or amounts of a quality: intensity and extensity; the quantitative conditions of variation in quality

 3d. The priority of quality or quantity in relation to form, matter, or substance

4. The relation of qualities to one another

 4a. Qualities which imply correlatives

 4b. The contrariety of qualities: with or without intermediate degrees

5. Change of quality: the analysis of alteration

6. Qualities as objects of knowledge

 6a. Quality in relation to definition or abstraction

 6b. The perception of qualities

 6c. The objectivity of sense-qualities: the comparative objectivity of primary and secondary qualities

 

76量

1量の性質と存在:物質、物、体との関係;量の超越的なカテゴリー

 1a量と質の関係:質の量への還元性

 1b量の関係:等式と比例

2量の種類:連続と不連続

3幾何学の重要性:次元性の関係

 3a直線:それらの長さと関係;角度、垂線、平行線

 3b曲線:その種類、数、程度

 (1)円

 (2)楕円

 (3)放物線

 (4)双曲線

 3c直線と曲線の関係:接線、割線、漸近線

 3d平面

 (1)面積の測定と変換

 (2)平面と線、立体の関係

 3e立体:規則的なものと不規則的なもの

 (1)体積の決定

 (2)立体の関係:内接球と外接球;回転体

4離散的な量:数と番号付け

 4a数の種類:奇数-偶数、平方数-三角数素数-合成数

 4b数の相互関係:倍数と分数;一連の数字

 4c連続体としての数列:正の数と負の数;虚数

5物理量

 5a空間:数字と距離マトリックス

 5b時間:運動の数

 5c運動の量:運動量、速度、加速度

 5d質量:重量との関係

 5e力:その測定と、その効果の測定

6量の測定:大きさと多さの関係;測定単位

 6a通約可能な大きさと通約不可能な大きさ

 6b測定における数学的手順:重ね合わせ、合同;割合と比率;パラメータと座標

 6c測定における物理学的手順:実験と観察;時計、規則、バランス

7無限の量:実無限の量と可能無限の量;大小の数学的無限と物理的無限

 

76 Quantity

「Great Books 2」p427

1. The nature and existence of quantity: its relation to matter, substance, and body; the transcendental categories of quantity

 1a. The relation between quantity and quality: reducibility of quality to quantity

 1b. The relation of quantities: equality and proportion

2. The kinds of quantity: continuous and discontinuous

3. The magnitudes of geometry: the relations of dimensionality

 3a. Straight lines: their length and their relations; angles, perpendiculars, parallels

 3b. Curved lines: their kinds, number, and degree

  (1) Circles

  (2) Ellipses

  (3) Parabolas

  (4) Hyperbolas

 3c. The relations of straight and curved lines: tangents, secants, asymptotes

 3d. Surfaces

  (1) The measurement and transformation of areas

  (2) The relations of surfaces to lines and solids

3e. Solids: regular and irregular

  (1) The determination of volume

  (2) The relations of solids: inscribed and circumscribed spheres; solids of revolution

4. Discrete quantities: number and numbering

 4a. The kinds of numbers: odd-even, square-triangular, prime-composite

 4b. The relations of numbers to one another: multiples and fractions; series of numbers

 4c. The number series as a continuum: positive and negative numbers; imaginary numbers

5. Physical quantities

 5a. Space: the matrix of figures and distances

 5b. Time: the number of motion

 5c. The quantity of motion: momentum, velocity, acceleration

 5d. Mass: its relation to weight

 5e. Force: its measure and the measure of its effect

6. The measurements of quantities: the relation of magnitudes and multitudes; the units of measurement

 6a. Commensurable and incommensurable magnitudes

 6b. Mathematical procedures in measurement: superposition, congruence; ratio and proportion; parameters and coordinates

 6c. Physical procedures in measurement: experiment and observation; clocks, rules, balances

7. Infinite quantity: the actual infinite and the potentially infinite quantity; the mathematical and physical infinite of the great and the small

 

77推論

1推論の定義と説明:思考の過程

 1a動物の推論と比較した人間の推論

 1b即時的な直観と対照的な論証的推論

 1c推論における感覚、記憶、想像力の役割:知覚による推論、筋道の立った回想、画像の照合

2推論のルール:三段論法の理論

 2a三段論法の構造:その形と形態

 (1)前提の数と名辞の数:推論における中名辞

 (2)中名辞の肯定、否定、周延:前提の量と質

 2b三段論法の種類:定言、仮言、選言、様相

 2c三段論法の接続:連鎖式、前三段論法、後三段論法

3推論の真実性と妥当性

 3a形式的な真実と実質的な真実:事実における真実と区別される論理的な妥当性

 3b推論における妥当性の欠如:妥当でない三段論法;形式的誤謬

 3c推論における真実性の欠如:詭弁的な議論;実質的な誤謬

 3d推論における必然性と偶然性:論理的な必然性;確実性と蓋然性

4推論、推理、議論の種類

 4a直接推理:間接推理または推論との関係

 4b推論の方向性と利用:証明と推論、または論証と発見との区別

 4c帰納的推論と演繹的推論

 4d直接的な議論と間接的な議論:背理法による証明;不可能または理想的な場合からの議論

 4e反証:論朴

 4f類推による推論:類似性からの議論

5知識、意見、行動に関する推論

 5a事実と推論に基づいた事実:合理的な根拠を基盤とする信念と区別される単なる信念

 5b科学的な推論:論証の理論

 (I)論証の基礎としての証明不可能なもの

 (2)推論の手段として利用される定義:推論の目的としての定義

 (3)アプリオリな推論とアポステリオリな推論:原因から、あるいは結果から;原理から、あるいは経験から;分析と合成

 (4)論証と科学的な推論における原因の役割

 (5)本質と存在に関連する論証:「なにゆえの論証」と「ということの論証」*1

 5c弁証法的な推論:合理的な議論の反対

 5dレトリックによる推論:説得の合理的根拠

 5e実践的な推論

  (1)実践三段論法の形式

  (2)法的思考における演繹と決定

  (3)熟慮:代替手段の選択;決定

6さまざまな学問分野における推論の特徴

 6a形而上学と神学における証明

 6b数学における論証:分析と合成;数学的帰納法再帰的推論

 6c自然の哲学と自然科学における帰納的推理や演繹的推理

 6d道徳科学における帰納と論証

 

77 Reasoning

「Great Books 2」p442-443

1.Definitions or descriptions of reasoning: the process of thought

 1a. Human reasoning compared with the reasoning of animals

 1b. Discursive reasoning contrasted with immediate intuition

 1c. The role of sense, memory, and imagination in reasoning: perceptual inference, rational reminiscence, the collation of images

2. The rules of reasoning: the theory of the syllogism

 2a. The structure of a syllogism: its figures and moods

  (1) The number of premises and the number of terms: the middle term in reasoning

  (2) Affirmation, negation, and the distribution of the middle term: the quantity and the quality of the premises

 2b. The kinds of syllogism: categorical, hypothetical, disjunctive, modal

 2c. The connection of syllogisms: sorites, prosyllogisms and episyllogisms

3. The truth and cogency of reasoning

 3a. Formal and material truth: logical validity distinguished from factual truth

 3b. Lack of cogency in reasoning: invalid syllogisms; formal fallacies

 3c. Lack of truth in reasoning: sophistical arguments; material fallacies

 3d. Necessity and contingency in reasoning: logical necessity; certainty and probability

4. The types of reasoning, inference, or argument

 4a. Immediate inference: its relation to mediated inference or reasoning

 4b. The direction and uses of reasoning: the distinction between proof and inference, and between demonstration and discovery

 4c. Inductive and deductive reasoning

 4d. Direct and indirect argumentation: proof by reductio ad absurdum; argument from the impossible or ideal case

 4e. Refutation: disproof

 4f. Reasoning by analogy: arguments from similarity

5. Reasoning in relation to knowledge, opinion, and action

 5a. The fact and the reasoned fact: mere belief distinguished from belief on rational grounds

 5b. Scientific reasoning: the theory of demonstration

  (1) The indemonstrable as a basis for demonstration

  (2) Definitions used as means in reasoning: definitions as the ends of reasoning

  (3) A priori and a posteriori reasoning: from causes or from effects; from principles or from experience; analysis and synthesis

  (4) The role of causes in demonstration and scientific reasoning

  (5) Demonstration in relation to essence and existence: demonstrations proper quid and quia

 5c. Dialectical reasoning: the opposition of rational arguments

 5d. Rhetorical reasoning: the rational grounds of persuasion

 5e. Practical reasoning

  (1) The form of the practical syllogism

  (2) Deduction and determination in legal thought

  (3) Deliberation: the choice of alternative means; decision

6. The character of reasoning in the various disciplines

 6a. Proof in metaphysics and theology

 6b. Demonstration in mathematics: analysis and synthesis; mathematical induction or recursive reasoning

 6c. Inductive and deductive inference in the philosophy of nature and the natural science

 6d. Induction and demonstration in the moral science

 

78関係

1関係の一般理論

 1a関係の性質と存在:実在的な関係と論理的な関係、理想的な関係の区別

 1b関係が物事の性質と存在に及ぼす影響:内的関係と外的関係

 1c相関的なものの共存

 1d関係の統一性、または関係の同一性:類推や比例の概念と利用

2神の秩序と関係:神聖な聖霊の発生と、人の三位一体を構成する関係

3神と世界との関係:神の内在性と超越性

4思考や知識の秩序における関係

 4a相対的な語の定義可能性と定義不可能性

 4b関係の表現としての命題や判断:推論における関係

 4c関係の超越的なカテゴリー

 4d知識の対象としての関係:関係についての考え

 4eアイデア間の関係

 4f思考、記憶、夢における、考えの連想の根底にある関係の種類

5関係や関係するもののシステムとしての順序

 5a順序の性質と種類:包括と除外;連続と共在;優先順位、事後性、同時性

 (1)原因の順序や、原因と結果の順序

 (2)商品の順序や、手段と目的の順序:愛の順序

 (3)数量の順序:比率の種類;一連の数字

 (4)種類の順序:階層;種と属

 5b宇宙や自然の順序:存在の階層

 5c美の原理としての順序

6熟慮の絶対的な形態と相対的な形態

 6a空間、時間、運動に関する絶対的なものと相対的なもの

 6b真実に関する絶対的なものと相対的なもの

 6c善や美に関する絶対的なものと相対的なもの

 

78 Relation

「Great Books 2」p458-459

1.The general theory of relation

 1a. The nature and being of relations: the distinction between real and logical or ideal relations

 1b. The effect of relations on the nature and being of things: internal and external relations

 1c. The coexistence of correlatives

 1d. Relational unity or identity of relation: the notion and use of analogy or proportionality

2. Order and relation in God: the divine processions and the relations constituting the Trinity of persons

3. The relation of God to the world: divine immanence and transcendence

4. Relation in the order of thought or knowledge

 4a. The definability or indefinability of relative terms

 4b. The proposition or judgment as a statement of relation: relation in reasoning

 4c. The transcendental categories of relation

 4d. Relations as objects of knowledge: ideas of relation

 4e. The relations between ideas

 4f. The types of relationship underlying the association of ideas in thought, memory, and dreams

5. Order as a system of relationships or related things

 5a. The nature and types of order: inclusion and exclusion; succession and coexistence; priority, posteriority, and simultaneity

  (1) The order of the causes or of cause and effect

  (2) The order of goods or of means and ends: the order of loves

  (3) The order of quantities: the types of proportion; series of numbers

  (4) The order of kinds: hierarchy; species and genus

 5b. The order of the universe or of nature: the hierarchy of beings

 5c. Order as a principle of beauty

6. The absolute and the relative modes of consideration

 6a. Absolute and relative with respect to space, time, motion

 6b. Absolute and relative with respect to truth

 6c. Absolute and relative with respect to goodness or beauty

 

79宗教

1宗教の基礎としての信仰:宗教の起源に関する他の説明

 1a信仰の性質、原因、条件:その特定の目的

 1b宗教的信念の源泉

 (1)啓示:神の言葉と神の権威;啓示の名における宗教の否定

 (2)神の確認としての奇跡としるし

 (3)預言者の言明:神の聖別されたもの

2宗教の美徳と実践:神への正義としての敬虔さ

 2a祈りと祈願:その効力

 2b崇拝と崇敬:宗教の儀礼と儀式

 2c秘跡の性質、制度、利用

 2d犠牲と贖罪

 2e断食と施し

 2f浄化の儀式:洗礼と懺悔による罪の赦し;再生の概念

 2g宗教的な偽善:冒涜と瀆聖

3宗教的な生活:宗教的機関と宗教共同体

 3a宗教共同体のユダヤ教的概念:律法と神殿

 3b教会のキリスト教的概念:キリストの神秘的な身体の教義

 3c宗教の社会制度:宗教的職業

 (1)神権および他の教会の役職の制度

 (2)教会組織と階層

 (3)教会制度の支援:十分の一税、寄付、国の補助金

 3d修道院の生活:禁欲の訓練

4教会と国家:社会における宗教と世俗的要素との関係

 4a政府の形態に関連する宗教:神権国家

 4b宗教の国家に対する奉仕と、国家による宗教への政治的支援

5宗教の普及

 5a説教の機能

 5b改宗

 5c宗教教育

6宗教における真実と虚偽

 6a偶像崇拝、魔法、妖術、呪術への宗教的な非難;迷信の非難

 6b宗教的な護教学:信仰の擁護

 6c宗教の統一と伝統

 (1)宗教における教義の役割:正統と異端;異端者の扱い

 (2)信念と実践の相違から生じる宗派と分裂

 6d世界宗教:多様な信仰を持つ人々の間の関係;異教徒に対する信者の態度

 6e宗教的な自由:良心の自由;宗教的寛容

 6f宗教の超自然的基盤の拒絶:特定の信念と実践に対する批判;宗教の心的発生

 6g宗教と学問との関係:世俗化の影響

 6h神話としての宗教:真でも偽でもないもの

7宗教的信念、制度、論争に関する歴史と文学の観察

 

79 Religion

「Great Books 2」p477-478

1. Faith as the foundation of religion: other accounts of the origin of religion

 1a. The nature, cause, and conditions of faith: its specific objects

 1b. The sources of religious belief

  (1) Revelation: the word of God and divine authority; the denial of religion in the name of revelation

  (2) Miracles and signs as divine confirmation

  (3) The testimony of prophets: the anointed of God

2. The virtue and practice of religion: piety as justice to God

 2a. Prayer and supplication: their efficacy

 2b. Worship and adoration: the rituals and ceremonials of religion

 2c. The nature, institution, and uses of the sacraments

 2d. Sacrifices and propitiations

 2e. Fasting and almsgiving

 2f. Purificatory rites: the remission of sin by baptism and penance; the concept of regeneration

 2g. Religious hypocrisy: profanations and sacrileges

3. The religious life: religious offices and the religious community

 3a. The Jewish conception of the religious community: the Torah and the Temple

 3b. The Christian conception of the church: the doctrine of the mystical body of Christ

 3c. The social institutions of religion: religious vocations

  (1) The institution of the priesthood and other ecclesiastical offices

  (2) Ecclesiastical government and hierarchy

  (3)The support of ecclesiastical institutions: tithes, contributions, state subsidy

 3d. The monastic life: the disciplines of asceticism

4. Church and state: the relation between religion and secular factors in society

 4a. Religion in relation to forms of government: the theocratic state

 4b. The service of religion to the state and the political support of religion by the state

5. dissemination of religion

 5a. The function of preaching

 5b. Religious conversion

 5c. Religious education

6. Truth and falsity in religion

 6a. The religious condemnation of idolatry, magic, sorcery, or witchcraft; denunciations of superstition

 6b. Religious apologetics: the defense of faith

 6c. The unity and tradition of a religion

  (1) The role of dogma in religion: orthodoxy and heresy; the treatment of heretics

  (2) Sects and schisms arising from divergences of belief and practice

 6d. the world religions: the relation between people of diverse faiths; the attitude of the faithful toward infidels

 6e. Religious liberty: freedom of conscience; religious toleration

 6f. The rejection of supernatural foundations for religion: the criticism of particular beliefs and practices; the psychogenesis of religion

 6g. The relation of religion to the arts and sciences: the impact of secularization

 6h. Religion as myth: neither true nor false

7. Observations in history and literature concerning religious beliefs, institutions, and controversies

 

80革命

1革命の性質

 1a社会的、政治的、経済的な変化を達成するための暴力的手段と平和的手段に関する問題

 1b反逆や反乱の定義:反逆的な共謀者としての革命家

 1c革命と反革命:国家間の戦争とは区別される内戦

2政治革命の性質

 2a政府や体制の形式の変化

 2b権力を握っている人々の変化:指導者の罷免、暗殺、王位簒奪

 2c国家や帝国の範囲の変化:崩壊、分離、解放、自由

3政治革命の過程

 3a政治革命の目的:権力の奪取;自由、正義、平等の達成

 3b権力を保持する方法:暴君、専制君主全体主義国家による革命の抑圧と破壊

 3c様々な形態の政府における革命の原因と影響

 (1)君主制における革命

 (2)共和制における革命:貴族制、寡頭制、民主制

 (3)暴政や専制に対する反乱

4経済革命の性質

 4a抑圧や搾取の状態の変化:奴隷、農奴プロレタリアートの解放

 4b経済秩序における変化:生産と流通のシステムの変更や転覆

5経済革命の戦略

 5a階級闘争の表現としての革命:富裕層と貧困層、貴族と庶民、所有者と労働者

 5b革命的階級の組織:異なる経済システムに関連した、革命的階級としてのブルジョアジーとプロレタリア

 5c経済革命の目標としての無階級社会:国家の変革

6革命の正義

 6a反乱の権利:市民的不服従や暴力的な暴動を正当化する状況

 6b社会契約を無効にする権利や、連邦から脱退する権利

7帝国と革命:植民地の反乱の正当化と帝国主義の擁護

 

80 Revolution

「Great Books 2」p502-503

1. The nature of revolution

 1a. The issue concerning violent and peaceful means for accomplishing social, political, or economic change

 1b. The definition of treason or sedition: the revolutionist as a treasonable conspirator

 1c. Revolution and counterrevolution: civil strife distinguished from war between states

2. The nature of political revolutions

 2a. Change in the form of government or constitution

 2b. Change in the persons holding power: deposition, assassination, usurpation

 2c. Change in the extent of the state or empire: dissolution, secession, liberation, freedom

3. The process of political revolution

 3a. The aims of political revolution: the seizure of power; the attainment of liberty, justice, equality

 3b. Ways of retaining power: the suppression and subversion of revolutions by tyrants, despots, and totalitarian states

 3c. The causes and effects of revolution under different forms of government

  (1) Revolution in monarchies

  (2) Revolution in republics: aristocracies, oligarchies, and democracies

  (3) Rebellion against tyranny and despotism

4. The nature of economic revolutions

 4a. Change in the condition of the oppressed or exploited: the emancipation of slaves, serfs, proletariat

 4b. Change in the economic order: modification or overthrow of a system of production and distribution

5. The strategy of economic revolution

 5a. Revolution as an expression of the class struggle: rich and poor, nobles and commons, owners and workers

 5b. The organization of a revolutionary class: the bourgeoisie and the proletariat as revolutionary classes in relation to different economic systems

 5c. The classless society as the goal of economic revolution: the transformation of the state

6. The justice of revolution

 6a. The right of rebellion: the circumstances justifying civil disobedience or violent insurrection

 6b. The right to abrogate the social contract or to secede from a federation

7. Empire and revolution: the justification of colonial rebellion and the defense of imperialism

*1:これはよく分からなかったのでhttp://www.ic.nanzan-u.ac.jp/JINBUN/Christ/NJTS/032-Inoue.pdfの訳し方に則った