シントピコンの「トピックの見取り図」を和訳してみた(その10)

 本記事では、アイデア=大項目の91~102までの「トピックの見取り図」の和訳を載せている。

 詳しい説明はこちら。

kozakashiku.hatenablog.com

 

—目次—

 

91節制

1節制の性質

 1a節制と、一般的な美徳、勇気と正義の美徳との関係

 1b節制と知識や慎重さの関係:節制の方法の決定

 1c節制と自制:節制の偽造

2節制の種類:好色、禁欲、残酷さ、好奇心、過度の欲望に関連した悪徳

3義務や幸福に関連する節制

4節制の育成:節度のある人格の訓練

5節制の社会的な側面

 5a統治者と市民の節制:公共善に反する不節制な行動

 5b人々の節制:贅沢への耽溺;大衆の不節制

 5c節制に関する法:法で規制しうる節制の領域の範囲

6極端な節制と不節制

 6a禁欲主義:英雄的な節制

 6bディオニソスの精神:快楽のカルト

 

91 Temperance

「Great Books 2」p691

1. The nature of temperance

 1a. The relation of temperance to virtue generally, and to the virtues of courage and justice

 1b. The relation of temperance to knowledge and prudence: the determination of the mean of temperance

 1c. Temperance and continence: the counterfeits of temperance

2. The varieties of intemperance: the related vices of sensuality, abstemiousness, cruelty, curiosity, inordinate desire

3. Temperance in relation to duty or happiness

4. The cultivation of temperance: the training of a temperate character

5. The social aspects of temperance

 5a. The temperance of rulers and citizens: intemperate conduct as inimical to the common good

 5b. The temperance of a people: luxurious indulgences; the intemperance of the mob

 5c. Laws concerning temperance: the extent to which the sphere of temperance can be regulated by law

6. The extremes of temperance and intemperance

 6a. Asceticism: heroic temperance

 6b. The Dionysiac spirit: the cult of pleasure

 

92神学

1神学の主題:その探求の範囲;その問題の範囲

2自然神学や哲学的神学と、神聖神学や教義神学との区別:その理性と信仰との区別との関係

3哲学の分野としての神学

 3a哲学の他の部分に関連する自然神学:第一哲学形而上学、自然哲学

 3b思弁的神学と倫理的神学の区別:実践理性の作品としての神学

 3c思弁的神学の限界:解決不能の謎、または二律背反

4神聖な神学:理解を求める信仰

 4a神聖神学と哲学の関係:科学の女王としての神学

 4b神聖神学の原理:明らかにされた真実;信仰の論説;聖書の解釈

 4c神聖な教義の発展における理性と権威の役割:神学的な議論と証明

 4d思弁的な科学と実践的な科学としての神聖な神学

 4e神学的な異論と論争の性質と形態

5神学への批判:神学的な論争の教条的、詭弁的、または過度に弁証法的な性格

 

92 Theology

「Great Books 2」p705

1. The subject matter of theology: the scope of its inquiry; the range of its problems

2. The distinction between natural or philosophical theology and sacred or dogmatic theology: its relation to the distinction between reason and faith

3. Theology as a philosophical discipline

 3a. Natural theology in relation to other parts of philosophy: philosophia prima, metaphysics, natural philosophy

 3b. The distinction between speculative and moral theology: theology as a work of the practical reason

 3c. The limitations of speculative theology: the insoluble mysteries or antinomies

4. Sacred theology: faith seeking understanding

 4a. The relation of sacred theology to philosophy: theology as the queen of the sciences

 4b. The principles of sacred theology: revealed truth; articles of faith; interpretation of Scripture

 4c. The roles of reason and authority in the development of sacred doctrine: theological argument and proof

 4d. Sacred theology as a speculative and practical science

 4e. The nature and forms of theological heresy and controversy

5. Criticisms of theology: the dogmatic, sophistical, or over-dialectical character of theological controversy

 

93時間

1時間の性質:持続または運動の尺度としての時間;連続量としての時間;絶対時間と相対時間

2時間と永遠の区別:無時間や不変の永遠性と区別される、無限の時間の永遠性

 2a時間と永遠の中間としての半永久性

 2b時間の無限性と、運動や世界の永遠性に関する議論

 2c時間の創造:時間に対する永遠の優位性;時間の終わりの後の世界の不変性

3時間の存在様態

 3a時間の部分:過去、現在、未来への分割

 3b現在の実在に関連する過去と未来の実在

 3c現在の瞬間の範囲:瞬間性

4時間の測定:太陽、星、時計

5時間の関係:管理の手段としての時間

 5a同時性や共在性:同時性の相対性;原因と結果、行動と情熱、知識と対象の同時性

 5b連続や事前性と事後性:原因と結果、可能性と現実の時間的順序

 5c考えの関連付けに関する連続と同時性

 5d時間的な同時性と、非時間的な同時性や連続との比較:思考、性質、起源に先駆けるもの

6時間の知識と持続の経験

 6a内的感覚による時間の知覚:時間間隔の経験と記憶の違い

 6b経過時間の評価に影響する要因:空の時間と満たされた時間;時間の知覚の錯覚;経験された持続の変動性

 6c直観の超越的な形式としての時間:算術のアプリオリな基礎;先天的な時間の知覚と後天的な時間の知覚に関する問題

 6d時間の表示:名詞と動詞の区別;動詞の時制

 6e過去の知識:記憶の貯蔵庫;物理的な痕跡や残存物における過去の証拠

 6f未来の知識:未来の偶然性についての命題の真実;予測の蓋然性

7感情の時間的経過:時間や可変性に対する感情的な態度

8歴史的な時間

 8a先史時代と歴史時代:古代の人間

 8b歴史の時代:黄金時代の神話;現代性の相対性;疑似主義

 

93 Time

「Great Books 2」p719-720

1. The nature of time: time as duration or as the measure of motion; time as a continuous quantity; absolute and relative time

2. The distinction between time and eternity: the eternity of endless time distinguished from me eternity of timelessness and immutability

 2a. Aeviternity as intermediate between time and eternity

 2b. Arguments concerning the infinity of time and the eternity of motion or the world

 2c. The creation of time: the priority of eternity to time; the immutability of the world after the end of time

3. The mode of existence of time

 3a. The parts of time: its division into past, present, and future

 3b. The reality of the past and the future in relation to the existence of the present

 3c. The extent of the present moment: instantaneity

4. The measurement of time: sun, stars, and clocks

5. Temporal relationships: time as a means of ordering

 5a. Simultaneity or coexistence: the relativity of simultaneity; the simultaneity of cause  and effect, action and passion, knowledge and object known

 5b. Succession or priority and posteriority: the temporal order of cause and effect, potentiality and actuality

 5c. Succession and simultaneity in relation to the association of ideas

 5d. Comparison of temporal with nontemporal simultaneity and succession: the prior in thought, by nature, or in origin

6. The knowledge of time and the experience of duration

 6a. The perception of time by the interior senses: the difference between the experience and memory of time intervals

 6b. Factors influencing the estimate of time elapsed: empty and filled time; illusions of time perception; the variability of experienced durations

 6c. Time as a transcendental form of intuition: the a priori foundations of arithmetic; the issue concerning innate and acquired time perception

 6d. The signifying of time: the distinction between noun and verb; the tenses of the verb

 6e. Knowledge of the past: the storehouse of memory; the evidences of the past in physical traces or remnants

 6f. Knowledge of the future: the truth of propositions about future contingents; the probability of predictions

7. the temporal course of the passions: emotional attitudes toward time and mutability

8. Historical time

 8a. Prehistoric and historic time: the antiquity man

 8b. The epochs of history: myths of a golden age; the relativity of modernity; pseudoarchaism

 

94真

1真理の性質:真理の対応説と整合説

 1a真理のしるしや基準:検証の方法

 1b真理と存在や実在との関係

 1c真、善、美の関係

2真実と虚偽の形態

 2a精神と物事における真実と虚偽の区別:論理的な真実と存在論的な真実

 2b言明の真理と意味の真理の区別:本当の真理と言葉の真理の区別

 2c理論的な真理と実践的な真理の区別:存在との一致と正しい欲望との一致

 2d人間の真理と神の真理の比較:有限の真理と無限の真理

 2e真実性と蓋然性の区別:その知識と意見の区別との関係

3人間の知識と学習に関する真実と誤り

 3a感覚機能の把握における真実

 (1)感覚の真実:知覚の判断

 (2)記憶と想像力における真実

 3b精神のふるまいの真実

 (1)考えの真実:概念と定義

 (2)命題の真実:未来の偶然性に関する判断の特別な問題

 (3)推論における真実:結論の真実に関する前提の真実;論理的な妥当性と現実における真実

 3c判断と推論における真理の基礎としての矛盾律矛盾律の拡張としての相補性の原理

 3d誤りの性質と原因

 (1)感覚と精神の無謬性:誤りが不可能である点

 (2)人間の知覚と思考における誤りの性質と原因:誤りと無知の区別

 (3)思考における誤りの訂正や防止のための原理

4真理に関する様々な分野の比較

 4a科学と宗教における真理:理性の真理と信仰の真理

 4b科学と詩における真理:事実の真理とフィクションの真理

 4c形而上学、数学、経験科学における真理:いくつかの思弁的学問における原理、仮説、結論の真実性

 4dレトリックと弁証法における真実性と蓋然性

5永遠の真理と真理の可変性

6人間の学習の進歩における、真実や誤りの訂正の蓄積や堆積

7真理の懐疑的な否定

 7a真理を知ることの不可能性:全ての人間の判断の、蓋然性の程度への制限;公理や証明可能性の否定

 7b懐疑論者に対する真実の擁護

8真理の倫理的側面と政治的側面

 8a言い逃れと偽証:嘘をついたり、偽証したりすることの不正

 8b政治的な嘘の方便:嘘の利用

 8c愛と友情に関する真実と虚偽:好ましい真実と不快な真実

 8d真実を発見するための条件としての市民の自由:思想と議論の自由

 8e真理への愛と追求の義務:詭弁家と哲学者の倫理的区別;真実のための殉死

 

94 Truth

「Great Books 2」p735-736

1. The nature of truth: the correspondence and coherence theories of truth

 1a. The signs or criteria of truth: methods of verification

 1b. The relation between truth and being or reality

 1c. The relation of truth, goodness, and beauty

2. The modes of truth and falsity

 2a. The distinction between truth and falsity in the mind and in things: logical and ontological truth

 2b. The distinction between truth of statement and truth of signification: the distinction between real and verbal truth

 2c. The distinction between theoretical and practical truth: conformity to existence and conformity to right desire

 2d. The comparison of human and divine truth: finite truths and the infinite truth

 2e. The distinction between truth and probability: its relation to the distinction between knowledge and opinion

3. Truth and error in relation to human knowing and learning

 3a. Truth in the apprehensions of the sensitive faculty

  (1) The truth of sensations: judgments of perception

  (2) Truth in the memory and imagination

 3b. Truth in the acts of the mind

  (1) The truth of ideas: concepts and definitions

  (2) The truth of propositions: the special problem of judgments about future contingencies

  (3) Truth in reasoning: the truth of premises in relation to the truth of conclusions; logical validity and truth about reality

 3c. The principle of contradiction as the foundation of truth in judgment and in reasoning: the principle of complementarity as an extension of the principle of contradiction

 3d. The nature and causes of error

  (1) The infallibility of the senses and the mind: the respects in which they are incapable

of error

  (2) The nature and sources of error in human perception and thought: the distinction

between error and ignorance

  (3) Rules for the correction or prevention of error in thought

4. Comparison of the various disciplines with respect to truth

 4a. Truth in science and religion: the truth of reason and the truth of faith

 4b. Truth in science and poetry: the truth of fact and the truth of fiction

 4c. Truth in metaphysics, mathematics, and the empirical sciences: the truth of principles, hypotheses, and conclusions in the several speculative disciplines

 4d. Truth and probability in rhetoric and dialectic

5. The eternal verities and the mutability of truth

6. The accumulation or accretion of truth, and the correction of error, in the progress of human learning

7. The skeptical denial of truth

 7a. The impossibility of knowing the truth: the restriction of all human judgements to degrees of probability; the denial of axioms and of the possibility of demonstration

 7b. The defense of truth against the skeptic

8. The moral and political aspect of truth

 8a. Prevarication and perjury: the injustice of lying or bearing false witness

 8b. The expediency of the political lie: the uses of lying

 8c. Truth and falsehood in relation to love and friendship: the pleasant and the unpleasant truth

 8d. Civil liberty as a condition for discovering the truth: freedom of thought and discussion

 8e. The love of truth and the duty to seek it: the moral distinction between the sophist and the philosopher; martyrdom to the truth

 

95暴政と専制

1暴政の性質と起源:現代の全体主義国家

 1a暴政的支配の無法性:権利なき権力

 1b暴政の不正:自己利益のための支配

 1c王位簒奪:権力の無許可の奪取

 1d暴政君主の性格:暴君の従者

2他の政体の腐敗としての暴政

 2a君主制の転倒:暴君

 2b寡頭制の堕落:富裕者の暴政

 2c民主制の腐敗:大衆や多数派の暴政;扇動者の台頭;全体主義

3暴政や専制無政府状態との選択

4専制の性質と影響

 4a専制と、暴政や君主制との関係:専制君主の慈悲

 4b父権的支配と専制的支配の比較:自治のための支配の無効さによる絶対支配の正当化

5専制政府と立憲政府の対比:人による統治と法による統治

 5a政治的な自由と平等に関する専制政府と立憲政府:被治者の権利

 5b失政に対する法律上の防御や、法の適正手続きによる不満の補償に関する専制政府や立憲政府

 5c専制政府と憲法政府における主権の位置:主権を司る人、公職、人々

 5d魂の力との関係における専制的支配と立憲的支配の類似:感情の専制

6専制的、暴政的または慈悲深い支配としての帝国の支配:被征服民や植民地の統治

7暴君や専制君主が権力を獲得し維持する方法

8暴君の運命:暴政と専制に対する自由と正義のための革命:暴君殺し

 

95 Tyranny and Despotism

「Great Books 2」p753-754

1. The nature and origin of tyranny: the modern totalitarian state

 1a. The lawlessness of tyrannical rule: might without right

 1b. The injustice of tyrannical government: rule for self-interest

 1c. Usurpation: the unauthorized seizure of power

 1d. The character of the tyrannical man: the friends of the tyrant

2. Tyranny as the corruption of other forms of government

 2a. The perversion of monarchy: the tyrannical king

 2b. The degeneration of oligarchy: the tyranny of the wealthy

 2c. The corruption of democracy: the tyranny od the masses or of the majority; the rise of the demagogue; totalitarianism

3. The choice between tyranny or despotism and anarchy

4. The nature and effects of despotism

 4a. The relation of despotism to tyranny and monarchy: the benevolence of despots

 4b. The comparison of paternal and despotic dominion: the justification of absolute rule by the incapacity of the ruled for self-government

5. The contrast between despotic and constitutional government: government by men and government by laws

 5a. Despotic and constitutional government with respect tot political liberty and equality: the rights of the governed

 5b. Despotic and constitutional government with respect to juridical defenses against misgovernment, or redress for grievances through due process of law

 5c. The location of sovereignty in despotic and constitutional government: the sovereign person, the sovereign office, the sovereign people

 5d. The analogues of despotic and constitutional rule in the relation of the power of the soul: the tyranny of the passions

6. Imperial rule as despotic, and as tyrannical or benevolent: the government of conquered peoples or colonies

7. The ways of tyrants or despots to attain and maintain power

8. The fate of tyrants: revolutions for liberty and justice against tyranny and despotism: tyrannicide

 

96普遍と特殊

1普遍と特殊の区別と関係:本質と個体、全体と部分、種類と構成員、一と多、同と異、共通のものと固有のもの

2普遍の問題

 2a普遍の実在:分離した形としてのその実際の存在、または物の形におけるその潜在的な存在

 2b人間の精神における抽象や概念としての普遍

 2c普遍や抽象の、一般的あるいは共通の名の意味への還元

3個体の問題:個体の原則;具体的普遍

4知識の秩序における普遍と特殊

 4a知識の対象としての普遍:普遍の直観的理解や反省的理解

 4b天使の知性や神の精神に関する普遍

 4c普遍的な概念の、感覚の特殊性から抽象

 4d知覚対象と概念、イメージと考えの区別に関連した特殊と普遍の区別

 4e個体に関する私たちの知識の不十分さ:その定義不可能性

 4f科学の一般性:その原理の普遍性

5文法と論理に関する普遍と特殊

 5a固有名詞と一般名詞の違い

 5b普遍の分類:その内包と外延;その一般性の程度

 5c叙述や判断における特殊と普遍:命題の量;普遍的な判断、特殊的な判断、個別の判断

 5d推論における前提の普遍性と特殊性に関する規則:前提の量に関する結論の量

6普遍と特殊の区別の応用

 6a物質と形式の分析における特殊と普遍

 6b普遍的な原因と特殊な原因

 6c法の普遍性と公正さの特殊な分配

7客観的なものと主観的なもの、絶対的なものと相対的なものの区別に関する普遍と特殊

 7a真理の普遍性に関する問題

 7b倫理的原理の普遍性に関する問題

 7c美的基準の普遍性に関する問題:主観的な普遍

 

96 Universal and Particular

「Great Books 2」p769-770

1. The distinction and relation between universal and particular: essence and individual, whole and part, class and member, one and many, same and other, the common and the unique

2. The problem of the universal

 2a. The reality of universals: their actual existence as separate forms, or their potential existence in the forms of things

 2b. Universals as abstractions or concepts in the human mind

 2c. The reduction of universals or abstractions to the meaning of general or common names

3. The problem of the individual: the principle of individuality; the concrete universal

4. Universals and particulars in the order of knowledge

 4a. Universals as objects of knowledge: the intuitive or reflexive apprehension of universals

 4b. Universals in relation to the angelic intellect and the divine mind

 4c. The abstraction of universal concepts from the particulars of sense

 4d. The distinction between particular and universal in relation to the distinction between percept and concept, or between image and idea

 4e. The inadequacy of our knowledge of individuals: their indefinability

 4f. The generality of science: the universality of its principles

5. Universal and particular in relation to grammar and logic

 5a. The distinction between proper and common names

 5b. The classification of universals: their intension and extension; their degrees of generality

 5c. Particulars and universals in predications or judgments: the quantity of propositions; the universal, the particular, and the singular judgment

 5d. Rules concerning the universality and particularity of premises in reasoning: the quantity of the conclusion in relation to the quantity of the premises

6. Applications of the distinction between universal and particular

 6a. Particular and universal in the analysis of matter and form

 6b. Universal and particular causes

 6c. The universality of law and particular dispensations of equity

7. Universality and particularity in relation to the distinction between the objective and the subjective, the absolute and the relative

 7a. The issue concerning the universality of truth

 7b. the issue concerning the universality of moral principles

 7c. The issue concerning the universality of aesthetic standards: the subjective universal

 

97美徳と悪徳

1美徳の多様な概念

 1a知識と美徳の関係

 1b美徳の単一性と美徳の複数性

 1c悪徳の両極の中間としての美徳の教義

 1d本質的な善としての美徳:幸福との関係

 1e美徳と自制の区別:習慣としての美徳の理論の帰結

2美徳の分類:相互に関連した悪徳

 2a魂の部分や力に沿った美徳の分割:倫理的美徳と知的美徳の区別;枢要徳の理論

 (1)倫理的美徳の列挙と説明

 (2)知的美徳の列挙と説明

 2b自然的な美徳と超自然的な美徳の区別

 2c美徳の現れ:不完全な美徳や条件付きの美徳;美徳の偽造;美徳を装う自然的な、または気質的な性質

3美徳の秩序とつながり

 3a美徳の平等と不平等:美徳の階層と悪徳の程度

 3b美徳の独立性や相互依存性

4美徳の自然的な原因や条件

 4a自然的な資質:美徳や悪徳に対する気質的な性質;美徳の種や苗床

 4b倫理的美徳と知的美徳の領域における教育の役割

 4c美徳や悪徳の原因としての訓練や実践:習慣形成の過程

 4d倫理的美徳の発達における家族と国家の役割

 (1)性格の形成に対する親の権威の影響

 (2)報酬と罰の倫理的利用:戒めと助言、賞賛と非難の役割

 (3)法と慣習の指導:美徳の命令と悪徳の禁止に関する実定法の限界

 (4)詩、音楽、その他の芸術の倫理的性格への影響:歴史と模範の指導

 4e人間の行為の倫理的質

 (1)人間らしい行為や倫理的行為と、人間の非自発的行為や反射的行為との区別

 (2)人間の行為における善と悪の基準

 (3)人間の行為の倫理性に影響を与えるような状況

5倫理的美徳の形成における心理的要因

 5a美徳の問題としての感情、快、苦:欲望や欲求の役割

 5b美徳の形成における熟慮と判断:理性の役割

 5c美徳の条件としての意図と選択:意志の役割

6他の倫理的な善や原理に関する美徳

 6a義務と美徳

 6b美徳と快の関係

 6c美徳と富の関係:経済行動の宗教的基盤;労働倫理

 6d美徳と名誉

 6e友情と愛に関する美徳

7政治理論における美徳の役割

 7a政府と国家の目的としての美徳の育成

 7b市民の美徳:善人の美徳と比較した善良な市民の美徳

 7c貴族の原理:市民権や公職の条件としての美徳

 7d良い、または成功した支配者の要素としての美徳:権力の所有に関する悪徳

8美徳と悪徳の宗教的な側面

 8a原罪の倫理的帰結

 8b倫理的性格に対する宗教の影響:堕落した人による自然的な美徳の獲得のための、神の恵みの不可欠性

 8c神による美徳への報酬と悪徳への罰:今世と来世

 8d神学的な美徳の理論

  (1)信仰と不信

  (2)希望と絶望

  (3)慈善と愛の乱れ

 8e注入された美徳と、倫理的、または知的な贈り物

 8f慈善から流出する資質:謙遜、慈悲、純潔、従順

 8g美徳に関する禁欲的な生活の誓いと実践

9人間の倫理性の発展と衰退

 

97 Virtue and Vice

「Great Books 2」p784-786

1. Diverse conceptions of virtue

 1a. The relation between knowledge and virtue

 1b. The unity of virtue and the plurality of virtues

 1c. The doctrine of virtue as a mean between the extrems of vice

 1d. Virtue as an intrinsic good: its relation to happiness

 1e. The distinction between virtue and continence: the consequences of the theory of virtue as habit

2. The classification of the virtues: the correlative vices

 2a. The division of virtues according to the parts or powers of the soul: the distinction between moral and intellectual virtue; the theory of the cardinal virtues

  (1) Enumeration and description of the moral virtues

  (2) Enumeration and description of the intellectual virtues

 2b. The distinction between natural and supernatural virtues

 2c. The appearances of virtue: imperfect or conditional virtues; the counterfeits of virtue; natural or temperamental dispositions which simulate virtue

3. The order and connection of the virtues

 3a. The equality and inequality of the virtues: the hierarchy of virtue and the degrees of vice

 3b. The independence or interdependence of the virtues

4. The natural causes or conditions of virtue

 4a. Natural endowments: temperamental dispositions toward virtue or vice; the seeds or nurseries of virtue

 4b. The role of teaching in the spheres of moral and intellectual virtue

 4c. Training or practice as cause of virtue or vice: the process of habit formation

 4d. The role of the family and the state in the development of moral virtue

  (1) The influence of parental authority on the formation of character

  (2) The moral use of rewards and punishments: the role of precept and counsel, praise and blame

  (3) The guidance of laws and customs: the limits of positive law with respect to commanding virtue and prohibiting vice

  (4) The influence on moral character of poetry, music, and other arts: the guidance of history and example

 4e. The moral quality of human acts

  (1) The distinction between human or moral acts and the nonvoluntary or reflex acts of a man

  (2) The criteria of goodness and evil in human acts

  (3) Circumstances as affecting the morality of human acts

5. Psychological factors in the formation of moral virtue

 5a. The emotions and pleasure and pain as the matter of virtue: the role of desire or appetite

 5b. Deliberation and judgment in the formation of virtue: the role of reason

 5c. Intention and choice as conditions of virtue: the role of will

6. Virtue in relation to other moral goods or principles

 6a. Duty and virtue

 6b. The relation of virtue to pleasure

 6c. The relation of virtue to wealth: the religious basis of economic behavior; the work ethic

 6d. Virtue and honor

 6e. Virtue in relation to friendship and love

7. The role of virtue in political theory

 7a. The cultivation of virtue as an end of government and the state.

 7b. Civic virtue: the virtue of the good citizen compared with the virtue of the good man

 7c. The aristocratic principle: virtue as a condition of citizenship or public office

 7d. The virtues which constitute the good or successful ruler: the vices associated with the possession of power

8. The religious aspects of virtue and vice

 8a. The moral consequences of original sin

 8b. The influence of religion on moral character: the indispensability of divine grace for the acquisition of natural virtue by fallen man

 8c. The divine reward of virtue and punishment of vice: here and hereafter

 8d. The theory of the theological virtues

   (1) Faith and disbelief

   (2) Hope and despair

   (3) Charity and the disorder of love

 8e. The infused virtues and the moral and intellectual gifts

 8f. The qualities which flow from charity: humility, mercy, chastity, obedience

 8g. The vows and practices of the monastic life in relation to virtue

9. The advance or decline of human morality

 

98戦争と平和

1力の統治としての戦争:戦争状態と自然状態;戦争の精神

2戦争の種類

 2a内戦と国家間の戦争、あるいは国際戦争

 2b宗教戦争:信仰の擁護と伝道

 2c階級闘争:経済的集団の対立

3戦争の権利

 3a正しい戦争と不正な戦争の区別:自衛戦争と征服戦争

 3b戦争の開始と遂行に関する正義と方便:戦争の実施を管理する法と慣習

4戦争の原因や理由

 4a国家間の戦争の促進:遠因と近因;本当の原因と見かけ上の原

 4b内戦の原因となる要因

5戦争の影響

 5a戦争の倫理的帰結:人間の幸福と美徳や、女性と子どもの福祉への影響

 5b戦争の政治的帰結:様々な政体への影響

 5c戦争の経済学:その費用と帰結

6政治的な手段や道具としての戦争の概念

 6a戦争の目的としての征服、帝国、政治的拡大

 6b戦争の目的としての自由、正義、名誉、平和

7戦争の不可避性:軍事的な備えの政治的な必要性

8戦争の望ましさ:その倫理的利益と政治的利益

9戦争の愚かさと無益さ:平和主義運動

10軍事技術と軍事専門職:国家におけるその役割

 10a軍事政策の形成:軍と政治家や君主との関係

 10b様々な種類の兵士:傭兵、志願兵、徴兵、民兵

 10c軍事的な美徳:職業軍人の資質;戦争のための教育

 10d戦略と戦術の原則:軍事の天才

 10e海軍力の台頭と戦争におけるその役割

 10f武器の開発:その種類と利用

 10g軍事的策略としての休戦や同盟の形成

11平和の性質、原因、条件

 11a市民の平和の不可欠な条件としての法と政府:平和の単位としての政治的共同体

 11b人間における平和の原理としての正義と友愛

 11c国際法と国際平和:国際平和の手段としての条約、同盟、連合

 11d世界政府と世界平和

 

98 war and Peace

「Great Books 2」p809-810

1. War as the reign of force: the state of war and the state of nature; the martial spirit

2. The kinds of war

 2a. Civil war and war between states or international war

 2b. Religious wars: the defense and propagation of the faith

 2c. The class war: the conflict of economic groups

3. The rights of war

 3a. The distinction between just and unjust warfare: wars of defense and wars of conquest

 3b. Justice and expediency in relation to the initiation and prosecution of a war: laws and customs governing the conduct of warfare

4. The causes or occasions of war

 4a. The precipitation of war between states: remote and proximate causes; real and apparent causes

 4b. The factors responsible for civil strife

5. The effects of war

 5a. The moral consequences of war: its effects on the happiness and virtue of men and on the welfare of women and children

 5b. The political consequences of war: its effects on different forms of government

 5c. The economics of war: its cost and consequences

6. The conception of war as a political means or instrument

 6a. Conquest, empire, political expansion as ends of war

 6b. Liberty, justice, honor, peace as ends of war

7. The inevitability of war: the political necessity of military preparations

8. The desirability of war: its moral and political benefits

9. The folly and futility of war: pacifist movements

10. The military arts and the military profession: their role in the state

 10a. The formation of military policy: the relation between the military and the statesman or prince

 10b. Different types of soldiery: mercenaries, volunteers, conscripts, militia

 10c. The military virtues: the qualities of the professional soldier; education for war

 10d. The principles of strategy and tactics: the military genius

 10e. The rise of naval power and its role in war

 10f. The development of weapons: their kinds and uses

 10g. The making of truces or alliances as a military device

11. The nature, causes, and conditions of peace

 11a. Law and government as indispensable conditions of civil peace: the political community as the unit of peace

 11b. Justice and fraternity as principles of peace among men

 11c. International law and international peace: treaties, alliances, and leagues as instrumentalities of international peace

 11d. World government and world peace

 

99富

1富の要素:自然の富と人工の富の区別;生産手段と消耗品の区別

2家族共同体と部族共同体における富の獲得と管理

3政治共同体における富の生産

 3a生産性の要素:天然資源、原材料、労働、道具と機械、資本投資;生産的な資産と非生産的な資産

 3b土地の使用:土地や不動産の種類;地代の一般理論

 3c食糧供給:農業生産

 3d工業生産:家族、ギルド、工場の製造システム

4富の交換または商品の流通:商取引や交換の過程

 4a価値の形態:使用価値と交換価値の区別

 4b交換の種類:物々交換経済と貨幣経済現金払いと分割払い

 4c価格の要素としての地代、利益、賃金、利子:商品の実際の価格と名目価格、および自然価格と市場価格の区別

 4d価値の源泉:労働価値説

 4e市場価格の変動の原因:需要と供給

 4f独占と競争の帰結

 4g国家間の商取引:関税と補助金自由貿易

5貨幣

 5a交換の媒体や手段としての、あるいは交換における等価物の尺度としての貨幣の性質:貯蓄性向と消費性向

 5b貨幣的な基準:貨幣の造幣と鋳造;良貨と悪貨

 5c貨幣の価格と貨幣供給:他の商品によって測定されたものとしての貨幣の為替レート;経済活動に影響を与える貨幣的要因

 5d銀行の制度と機能:資金融資、信用、資本主義的企業の金融

 5e貨幣における金利金利を決定する要因;経済に対する金利の影響;高利貸しの非難

6資本

 6a資本主義的生産と他の生産システムとの比較:資本の社会的効用

 6b資本ストックの性質、起源、成長の理論:消費や徴収の必要性を超えた倹約、貯蓄、余剰;将来の需要や利益の現在における期待

 6c資本の種類:固定資本と流動資本、不変資本と可変資本

 6d資本の利益

 (1)地代、利子、賃金からの利益の区別

 (2)利益の源泉:限界価値や剰余価値不労所得と労働の搾取

 (3)資本収益の変動率を決定する要因

 (4)利益の正当化:企業の報酬と損失のリスクの補償

 6e資本主義経済における危機の回帰:不況、失業、利益率の低下;景気循環

7財産

 7a財産権:政府の機能としての財産の保護

 7b経済的財産の種類

 (1)財産としての家財奴隷

 (2)土地における財産

 (3)資本財や貨幣的富の財産

 7c財産の利用:生産、消費、交換のための

 7d財産の所有権:所有や所有権;財産の法的規制

 (1)私的所有:共同経営、共同資本、企業;所有と経営の分離

 (2)政府の所有:産業の国有化;土地収用

 7e財産の相続:相続を規制する法

8富の分配:社会的地位に対する富の影響;貧困の問題

 8a富の共有:共有された商品と土地;生産手段の公的所有

 8b共有財産の私有財産への分割:私有財産の増減に影響を与える要因

 8c貧困の原因:競争、無能、困窮、徴収、失業;生産手段を取り上げられたものとしての労働者の貧困

 8d貧困に関する法:救貧法、失業手当

9政治経済学:経済学の性質

 9a政治的な公共善の要素としての富

 9b国家の繁栄や豊かさを決定する要因:国の繁栄と雇用の変動

 9c国の富を守るための多様な経済プログラム:重農主義重商主義、自由放任制度;一般福祉のための経済の規制

 9d生産、交換、または経済生活の他の側面の政府による規制

 9e政府の経済的支援と政府のサービス

 (1)政府の出費:そのサービスを維持するための費用;国家予算の要素

 (2)政府の出費を負担する方法:課税やその他の形態の徴収や賦課金;没収、押収、その他の課税の乱用

 9f様々な政体に関する富や財産

 9g犯罪、革命、戦争に関する富と貧困

 9h政治的権力のための経済階級の闘争

10富と貧困の倫理的側面

 10a財としての富の性質:財の順序におけるその位置と、その幸福との関係

 10b個人による富の獲得の自然な限界:必需品と贅沢品の区別

 10c富に関する節制と不節制:気前の良さ、豪華さ、けち、貪欲;過剰な富の悪影響

 10d富と財産に関する正義の原理:公正な賃金と価格

 10e富に関する慈善の教え

 (1)貧しい人々や困窮した人々への施し

 (2)貧困の宗教的な誓い:自発的な貧困

 (3)神と富の間の選択:全ての悪の根源としての貨幣への愛; 豊かさの世俗的影響

11経済的な決定論:歴史の経済的解釈

12経済の進歩:効率と公正の両方に関する発展

 

99 Wealth

「Great Books 2」p833-835

1. The elements of wealth: the distinction between natural and artificial wealth; the distinction between the instruments of production and consumable goods

2. The acquisition and management of wealth in the domestic and tribal community

3. The production of wealth in the political community

 3a. Factors in productivity: natural resources, raw materials, labor, tools and machines, capital investments; productive and nonproductive property

 3b. The use of land: kinds of land or real estate; the general theory of rent

 3c. Food supply: agricultural production

 3d. Industrial production: domestic, guild, and factory systems of manufacturing

4. The exchange of wealth or the circulation of commodities: the processes of commerce or trade

 4a. The forms of value: the distinction between use-value and exchange-value

 4b. Types of exchange: barter economies and money economies; credit and installment buying

 4c. Rent, profit, wages, interest as the elements of price: the distinction between the real and the nominal price and between the natural and the market price of commodities

 4d. The source of value: the labor theory of value

 4e. Causes of the fluctuation of market price: supply and demand

 4f. The consequences of monopoly and competition

 4g. Commerce between states: tariffs and bounties; free trade

5. Money

 5a. The nature of money as a medium or instrument of exchange, and as a measure of equivalents in exchange: the propensities toward saving or consuming

 5b. Monetary standards: the coining and minting of money; good and bad money

 5c. The price of money and the money supply: the exchange rate of money as measured in terms of other commodities; monetary factors influencing economic activity

 5d. The institution and function of banks: monetary loans, credit, the financing of capitalistic enterprise

 5e. The rate of interest on money: factors that determine the rate of interest; the effect of interest rates on the economy; the condemnation of usury

6. Capital

 6a. Comparison of capitalist production with other systems of production: the social utility of capital

 6b. Theories of the nature, origin, and growth of capital stock: thrift, savings, excesses beyond the needs of consumption, expropriation; current expectations of future demand or profits

 6c. Types of capital: fixed and circulating, or constant and variable capital

 6d. Capital profits

  (1) The distinction of profit from rent, interest, and wages

  (2) The source of profit: marginal or surplus value; unearned increment and the exploitation of labor

  (3) Factors determining the variable rate of capital profit

  (4) The justification of profit: the reward of enterprise and indemnification for risk of losses

 6e. The recurrence of crises in the capitalist economy: depressions, unemployment, the diminishing rate of profit; business cycles

7. Property

 7a. The right of property: the protection of property as the function of government

 7b. Kinds of economic property

  (1) Chattel slaves as property

  (2) Property in land

  (3) Property in capital goods and in monetary wealth

 7c. The uses of property: for production, consumption, or exchange

 7d. The ownership of property: possession or title; the legal regulation of property

  (1) Private ownership: partnerships, joint-stock companies, corporations; separation ownership from management

  (2) Government ownership: the nationalization of industry; eminent domain

 7e. The inheritance of property: laws regulating inheritance

8. The distribution of wealth: the effects of wealth on social status; the problem of poverty

 8a. The sharing of wealth: goods and lands held in common; public ownership of the means of production

 8b. The division of common goods into private property: factors influencing the increase and decrease of private property

 8c. The causes of poverty: competition, incompetence, indigence, expropriation, unemployment; the poverty of the proletariat as dispossessed of the instruments of production

 8d. Laws concerning poverty: the poor laws, the dole

9. Political economy: the nature of the science of economics

 9a. Wealth as an element in the political common good

 9b. Factors determining the prosperity or opulence of states: fluctuations in national prosperity and employment

 9c. Diverse economic programs for securing the wealth of nations: the physiocratic, the mercantilist, and the laissez-faire systems; regulation of the economy for the general welfare

 9d. Governmental regulation of production, trade, or other aspects of economic life

 9e. The economic support of government and the services of government

  (1) The charges of government: the cost of maintaining its services; elements in the national budget

  (2) Methods of defraying the expenses of government: taxation and other forms of levy or impost; confiscations, seizures, and other abuses of taxation

 9f. Wealth or property in relation to different forms of government

 9g. Wealth and poverty in relation to crime, revolution, and war

 9h. The struggle of economic classes for political power

10. The moral aspects of wealth and poverty

 10a. The nature of wealth as a good: its place in the order of goods and its relation to happiness

 10b. Natural limits to the acquisition of wealth by individuals: the distinction between necessities and luxuries

 10c. Temperance and intemperance with respect to wealth: liberality, magnificence, miserliness, avarice,; the corrupting influence of excessive wealth

 10d. The principles of justice with respect to wealth and property: fair wages and prices

 10e. The precepts of charity with respect to wealth

   (1) Almsgiving to the needy and the impoverished

   (2) The religious vow of poverty: voluntary poverty

  ( 3) The choice between God and Mammon: the love of money as the root of all evil; the secularizing impact of affluence

11. Economic determinism: the economic interpretation of history

12. Economic progress: advances with respect to both efficiency and justice

 

100意志

1意志の存在と性質:理性や精神、欲望や感情との関係

2意志の力とふるまいの分析

 2a意志の対象:その力の範囲

 2b意志の動機

 (1)善悪の判断や道徳律による意志的行為の合理的な決定

 (2)益と害、快と苦の評価による意志的行為の感覚的な決定:感情の衝動

 2c意志の行為

 (1)意志的行為の分類と順序:手段と目的

 (2)目的に関する意志のいくつかのふるまい:先行する出来事と結果

 (3)手段に関する意志のいくつかのふるまい:先行する」出来事と結果

3人間の行動と思考における意志の機能

 3a行動における意志の役割

 (1)自発性と非自発性の区別:自発性の条件;自発的な行動に関する人間と動物の比較

 (2)目的のある行動の範囲:習慣と本能と、自発性との関係

 3b思考における意志の役割

 (1)思考における意志に関する知識と意見の区別:信じる意志と願望的思考

 (2)誤りの原因としての意志

 (3)意志の行為や実践理性に依存するものとしての宗教的な信仰

4神の意志

 4a神の意志と知性との関係

 4b神の意志の自由:可能なものと不可能なものに関する神の意志

5意志の自由

 5a自由意志の意味の解釈

 (1)自由に決定された選択、あるいは理性の自由な判断に基づくものとしての意志の自由

 (2)行動する、または行動しない自由に基づくものとしての意志の自由:外部からの制約や強制からの自由

 (3)完全に原因を持たない、または自発的な行為に基づくものとしての意志の自由

 (4)自己のために法を制定する理性の自律性としての意志の自由;純粋意志と自由意志の同一性

 5b意志の自由についての議論

 (1)選択の自由に対する人間の即時の意識:理性によるその自律性についての反省的知識

 (2)個別の善を判断する実践理性の不確定性に由来する意志の自由

 (3)道徳律や純粋理性、実践理性の事実からの自由意志の推論

 (4)実践的な選択としての自由意志:倫理的責任と行動に不可欠な条件としての自由意志の仮定

 5c意志の自由に反対する議論:自然の過程や因果関係による支配の違反としての自由意志;自由意志を証明することの不可能性

6意志の自由の範囲の分析

 6a意志の自由の限界:必然的な意志のふるまいと自由な意志のふるまいとの区別

 6b意志の行使の自由と意志の選択の自由との区別

 6c自発的行動と自由な選択から生じる行動との区別:自由に関する人間と動物の比較

7自由意志の含意

 7a人間の尊厳の源泉としての自由意志:その奴隷と市民的自由との関係

 7b歴史の哲学における自由と必然性の要因

 7c神の意志に関する人間の自由:運命、予定、摂理

 7d人間の意志の対象としての神:幸福なビジョンにおける意志の静止

 7e罪と救済に関する自由意志

 (1)罪を犯す自由:アダムの自由と堕落した人間性の自由

 (2)自由と神の恵みとの関係

8倫理性やと社会における要素としての意志

 8a意志の不可侵性:外的な強制や制約からの解放

 8b意志の善や悪意

 (1)意志の正しさや乱れの条件

 (2)排他的な、または主要な人間の善としての良い意志

 8c意志と美徳:意志の習慣としての正義と慈善

 8d意志と義務:定言命法

 8e意志と権利:外部の実践的関係における個々の意志の調和

9意志の領域における人間の間の違い

 9a強い意志と弱い意志の人間の区別:意志の力の育成

 9b意志の病理:優柔不断、強迫観念、衝動強迫、抑圧

10政治理論の用語としての意志

 10a主権の意志:人々の意志;多数派の意志

 10b法と意志の関係

 10c一般意志、特殊意志、個別意志、全体意志

 

100 Will

「Great Books 2」p862-863

1. The existence and nature of will: its relation to reason or mind and to desire or emotion

2. The analysis of the power and acts of the will

 2a. The objects of the will: the scope of its power

 2b. The motivation of the will

  (1) The rational determination of the will's acts by judgments concerning good and evil or by the moral law

  (2) The sensitive determination of the will's acts by estimations of benefit and harm, or pleasure and pain: the impulsion of the passions

 2c. The acts of the will

  (1) The classification and order of the will's acts: means and ends

  (2) The several acts of the will with respect to ends: their antecedents and consequences   

  (3) The several acts of the will with respect to means: their antecedents and consequences

3. The functioning of will in human conduct and thought

 3a. The role of the will in behavior

  (1) The distinction between the voluntary and the involuntary: the conditions of a voluntariness; comparison of men and animals with respect to voluntary behavior

  (2) The range of purposive conduct: the relation of habit and instinct to the voluntary

 3b. The role of the will in thought

  (1) The distinction between knowledge and opinion in relation to the willful in thought: the will to believe and wishful thinking

  (2) The will as cause of error

  (3) Religious faith as dependent on an act of will or practical reason

4. The divine will

 4a. The relation of the divine will and intellect

 4b. The freedom of the divine will: the divine will in relation to the possible and the impossible

5. The freedom of the will

 5a. Interpretations of the meaning of free will

  (1) The freedom of the will as consisting in a freely determined choice or a free judgement of the reason

  (2) The freedom of the will as consisting in the freedom of a man to act or not to act: freedom from external constraints or coercions

  (3) The freedom of the will as consisting in a totally uncaused or spontaneous act

  (4) The freedom of the will as the autonomy of the reason legislating for itself: the identity of pure will and free will

 5b. Arguments for the freedom of the will

  (1) Man's immediate consciousness of his freedom of choice: reason's reflexive knowledge of its autonomy

  (2) The freedom of the will as deriving from the indetermination of practical reason

judging particular goods

  (3) The deduction of free will from the moral law or from the fact of pure practical reason

  (4) Free will as a pragmatic option: the postulation of free will as an indispensable condition of moral responsibility and action

 5c. Arguments against the freedom of the will: free will as a violation of the course of nature or the reign of causality; the impossibility of proving free will

6. The analysis of the will's range of freedom

 6a. The limitations on the freedom of the will: the distinction between acts of the will which are necessitated and acts of the will which are free

 6b. The distinction between the will's freedom of exercise and the will's freedom of choice

 6c. The distinction between voluntary behavior and behavior resulting from free choice: comparison of men and animals with respect to freedom

7. The implications of free will

 7a. Free will as a source of human dignity: its relation to slavery and civil liberty

 7b. The factors of freedom and necessity in the philosophy of history

 7c. Human freedom in relation to the will of God: fate, predestination, and providence

 7d. God as the object of the human will: the quiescence of the will in the beatific vision

 7e. Free will in relation to sin and salvation

  (1) The freedom to sin: Adam's freedom and the freedom of fallen human nature

  (2) The relation of freedom to grace

8. The will as a factor in morality and in society

 8a. The inviolability of the will: its freedom from external compulsions or constraints

 8b. The goodness or malice of the will

  (1) The conditions of the will's rectitude or disorder

  (2) A good will as the exclusive or principal human good

 8c. The will and virtue: justice and charity as habits of the will

 8d. The will and duty: the categorical imperative

 8e. The will and right: the harmony of individual wills in external practical relations

9. Differences among men in the sphere of will

 9a. The distinction between men of strong and weak will: cultivation of willpower

 9b. The pathology of the will: indecision, obsession, compulsion, inhibition

10. Will as a term in political theory

 10a. The sovereign will: the will of the people; the will of the majority

 10b. The relation of law to will

 10c. The general will, particular wills, the will of each, and the will of all

 

101知恵

1知恵の性質、起源、種類

 1a自然の知恵の多様な概念:人間の知識の最高の形態

 1b思弁的な知恵と実践的な知恵、または哲学的な知恵と政治的な知恵の区別

 1c神学的な知恵と神秘的な知恵:信仰とビジョンの超自然的な知恵;知恵の贈り物

 1d神の知恵:神の知恵と比較した人間の知恵の欠陥;世俗的な知恵の愚かさや虚栄心

2知恵、美徳、幸福

 2a知的美徳としての知恵:他の知的美徳、特に科学や理解との関係;愚かさの悪や罪

 2b知恵と人間の善と悪の知識:知恵と倫理的美徳との関係

 2c善としての知恵:幸福な生活におけるその役割;社会における賢者の位置

 

3知恵の愛と、知恵へのステップ:詭弁家、哲学者、賢者

4愚かさの称賛:愚か者と無知な者の知恵

 

101 Wisdom

「Great Books 2」p881

1. The nature, origins, and kinds of wisdom

 1a. Diverse conceptions of natural wisdom: the supreme form of human knowledge

 1b. The distinction between speculative and practical wisdom, or between philosophical and political wisdom

 1c. Theological and mystical wisdom: the supernatural wisdom of faith and vision; the gift of wisdom

 1d. The wisdom of God: the defect of human wisdom compared with divine wisdom; the folly or vanity of worldly wisdom

2. Wisdom, virtue, and happiness

 2a. Wisdom as an intellectual virtue: its relation to other intellectual virtues, especially science and understanding; the vice or sin of folly

 2b. Wisdom and man’s knowledge of good and evil: the relation of wisdom to the moral virtues

 2c. Wisdom as a good: its role in the happy life; the place of the wise man in society

3. The love of wisdom and the steps to wisdom: the sophist, the philosopher, and the wise man

4. the praise of folly: the wisdom of fools and innocents

 

102世界

1森羅万象や宇宙の多様な概念

 1a対立する隠喩:機械としての宇宙と生物としての宇宙;世界の魂の教義

 1b多様な種類の存在の、秩序ある共同体としての宇宙:永遠の法と神の統治

2宇宙と人間:大宇宙と小宇宙

3宇宙と神:神の内在性と超越性

 3a神と世界の一致:能産的自然と所産的自然の区別

 3b神と世界の二元性:創造主と被造物の区別

4世界の起源と進化:混沌からの秩序の生成

 4a究極の起源の否定:世界の永遠と始まりも終わりもない運動

 4b芸術的な創造による、世界の起源に関する神話や仮説:デミウルゴス、創造的なアイデア、入れ物

 4c偶然の原子の集合による世界の形成

 4d一者からの世界の流出

 4e無からの世界の創造

(1)創造と運動、生成、芸術的創造の区別

(2)創造に関する時間と永遠の問題:時間における被造物の維持

(3)創造の啓示と教義:創世記1章の解釈;6日間の労働

 4f宇宙の進化に関する天文理論:恒星、惑星、銀河、星雲の起源

5世界の数:この世界の独自性;他の世界の可能性

6世界の構造

 6a世界の部分と場所:世界の物質の一様性

 6b物事の多様性、不平等、階層性

 6c宇宙の合理性や理解可能性

 6d宇宙の善と美:その悪と不完全さ

7世界の空間:宇宙の大きさや範囲に関する天文学理論;有限でありながら無限の宇宙;膨張または収縮する宇宙

8世界の終わり

 

102 World

「Great Books 2」p899

1. Diverse conceptions of the universe or cosmos

 1a. The opposed metaphors: the universe as a machine and the universe as a living organism; the doctrine of the world soul

 1b. The universe as an ordered community of beings diverse in kind: eternal law and divine government

2. The universe and man: macrocosm and microcosm

3. The universe and God: divine immanence and transcendence

 3a. The unity of God and the world: the distinction between natura naturans and natura naturata

 3b. The duality of God and the world: the distinction between Creator and creature

4. The origin and evolution of the world: cosmos out of chaos

 4a. The denial of ultimate origins: the eternity of the world and its motions without beginning or end

 4b. Myths or hypotheses concerning the world's origin by artistic production: the demiurge, the creative ideas, the receptacle

 4c. The formation of the world by a fortuitous concourse of atoms

 4d. The emanation of the world from the One

 4e. The creation of the world ex nihilo

  (1) The distinction between creation and motion, generation, and artistic production

  (2) The problem of time and eternity in relation to creation: the conservation of creatures in time

  (3) The revelation and dogma of creation: interpretations of Genesis 1; the work of the six days

 4f. Astronomical theories concerning the evolution of the universe: the origins of stars, planets, galaxies, nebulas

5. The number of worlds: the uniqueness of this world; the possibility of other worlds

6. The structure of the world

 6a. The parts and places of the world: the uniformity of the matter of the world

 6b. The diversity, inequality, and hierarchy of things

 6c. The rationality or intelligibility of the universe

 6d. The goodness and beauty of the universe: its evil and imperfections

7. The space of the world: astronomical theories concerning the size or extent of the universe; the universe as finite yet unbounded; the universe as expanding or contracting

8. The end of the world