シントピコンの「トピックの見取り図」を和訳してみた(その4)

 本記事では、アイデア=大項目の31~40までの「トピックの見取り図」の和訳を載せている。

 詳しい説明はこちら。

kozakashiku.hatenablog.com

 

 

—目次—

 

31政府

1政府の一般理論

 1a政府の起源と必要性:無政府状態に関する問題

 1b政治的、市民的政府と教会政府や父権的、専制政府との比較

 1c政府の目的と限界:正当性と正義の基準

 1d政府の要素:権威と権力、強制力;合法な政府と非合法な(事実上の)政府の違い

 1e良い政府の特質

 1f政府における濫用と汚職

 1g政府の主権:主権の統一性と性質

 (1)主権を有する人:個人の支配に付与された主権

 (2)主権を有する公職:憲法が設けた公職間の主権の分割

 (3)主権を有する人々:政府の主権の源泉としての共同体

 1h自治:民意の表現;選挙;投票

2政府の形態:その評価と序列

 2a政府の良い形態と悪い形態の区別と比較

 2b異なる形態の政府の組み合わせ:混合政体、混合政府

 2c政府の形態の絶対的評価と相対的評価:人間の性質や歴史的な事情を参照して

 2d各形態の政府の、人格形成に与える影響

 2e理想的な政府の形態:実行可能な理想とユートピア的な理想の区別

3立憲制政府の権力、部門:いくつか権力の列挙、定義、配置

 3aいくつかの権力の分離と調整:ある部門の、他部門への権利侵害

 3b市民と軍事力の関係

 3c政府の立法部門:法の制定

 (1)立法府の権限と義務

 (2)立法機関と立法手続き

 3d政府の司法部門:法の適用

 (1)司法の権限と義務

 (2)司法機関と司法手続き

 3e政府の執行部門:法の執行;行政命令

  (1)行政府の権限と義務

  (2)行政機関と行政手続き:官僚と公務員

4政府による支援と支出:課税と予算;経済における政府の役割

5政府の相互関係:無政府状態における君主や主権国家

 5a外交政策:条約の作成;戦争と平和の遂行

 5b属国の政府:植民地政府;被征服者の政府

 5c地方政府と中央政府の関係:政府機能の中央集権化と地方分権

 5d連邦と連邦連合:国家と連邦政府の間の管轄権の分割

6政府の歴史的発展:革命と進歩

 

31 Government

「Great Books 1」p500-501

1.The general theory of government

 1a. The origin and necessity of government: the issue concerning anarchy

 1b. Comparison of political or civil government with ecclesiastical government and with paternal or despotic rule

 1c. The ends and limits of government: the criteria of legitimacy and justice

 1d. The elements of government: authority and power, or coercive force; the distinction between de jure and de facto government

 1e. The attributes of good government

 1f. The abuses and corruptions to which government is subject

 1g. The sovereignty of government: the unity and disposition of sovereignty

  (1) The sovereign person: sovereignty vested in the individual ruler

  (2) The sovereign office: the partition of sovereignty among the offices created by a constitution

  (3) The sovereign people: the community as the source of governmental sovereignty

 1h. Self-government: expressions of the popular will; elections; voting

2.The forms of government: their evaluation and order

 2a. The distinction and comparison of good and bad forms of government

 2b. The combination of different forms of government: the mixed constitution, the mixed regime

 2c. The absolute and relative evaluation of forms of government: by reference to the nature of man or to historic circumstances

 2d. The influence of different forms of government on the formation of human character

 2e. The ideal form of government: the distinction between practicable and utopian ideals

3. The powers, branches, or departments of constitutional government: enumerations, definitions, and orderings of these several powers

 3a. The separation and coordination of the several powers: usurpations and infringements by one branch of government upon another

 3b. The relation of the civil to the military power

 3c. The legislative department of government: the making of law

  (1) The powers and duties of the legislature

  (2) Legislative institutions and procedures

 3d. The judicial department of government: the application of law

  (1) The powers and duties of the judiciary

  (2) Judicial institutions and procedures

 3e. The executive department of government: the enforcement of law; administrative decrees

  (1) The powers and duties of the executive

  (2) Administrative institutions and procedures: bureaucracy and civil service

4. The support and the expenditures of government: taxation and budget; the role of government in the economy

5. The relation of governments to one another: sovereign prince or states as in a condition of anarchy

 5a. Foreign policy: the making of treaties; the conduct of war and peace

 5b. The government of dependencies: colonial government; the government of conquered peoples

 5c. The relation of local to national government: the centralization and decentralization of governmental functions

 5d. Confederation and federal union: the division of jurisdiction between state and federal governments

6. Historical developments in government: revolution and progress

 

32習慣

1習慣の多様な概念:後天的な性質、能力の完成、物事の持続的な変化

 1a能力と行動に関する習慣

 1b物事の可塑性に関する習慣

2習慣の種類:習慣と気質、その他の性質との区別

 2a起源と機能による習慣の区別:先天的習慣と後天的習慣、取り除ける習慣と取り除けない習慣

 2b習慣によって得た能力や習慣的活動の対象による習慣の区別

3動物と人間の本能や生得的な習慣

 3a本能的な要求や衝動

 3b有益なものと有害なものに対する生得的な感覚:推定する能力

 3c理性に関する本能

 3d習慣形成の本能的な礎:経験や学習を通じた本能と反射的反応の修正

 3e発生の過程における本能の起源、伝達、修正

4習慣の形成

 4a習慣の原因:実践、反復、しつけ、教え、法

 4b習慣の強化と弱化:習慣を強化する方法、やめさせる方法

5人間に固有の習慣の分析

 5a身体の習慣:手工芸と遊びのスキル

 5b欲求と意志の習慣:良い習慣としての倫理的美徳

 5c理性の自然な習慣:精神の生得的な傾向

 5d後天的な精神の習慣:知性的な美徳

 5e超自然的な習慣

 (1)人の取り除けない習慣としての美質

 (2)注入された美徳と超自然的な才能

 (3)神学的な美徳

6人間の生活における習慣の力

 6a習慣の自動的、無意識的な機能:依存

 6b人格と精神の完成への習慣の貢献

 6c習慣と自由

7習慣の社会的重要性:法に関する習慣

 

32 Habit

「Great Books 1」p520-521

1.Diverse conceptions of habit: as second nature, perfection of power, retained modification of matter

 1a. Habit in relation to potency and act

 1b. Habit in relation to the plasticity of matter

2.The kinds of habit: the distinction of habit from disposition and other qualities

 2a. Differentiation of habits according to origin and function: innate and acquired, entitative and operative habits

 2b. Differentiation of habits according to the capacity habituated or to the object of

the habit's activity

3.The instincts or innate habits of animals and men

 3a. Instinctual needs or drives

 3b. The innate sense of the beneficial and harmful: the estimative power

 3c. Instinct in relation to reason

 3d. The instinctive basis of habit-formation: the modification of instincts and reflexes

through experience or learning

 3e. The genesis, transmission, and modification of instincts in the course of generations

4. Habit formation

 4a. The causes of habit: practice, repetition, discipline, teaching, and the law

 4b. The growth and decay of habits: ways of strengthening and breaking habits

5. The analysis of specifically human habits

 5a. Habits of body: manual arts and the skills of play

 5b. Habits of appetite and will: the moral virtues as good habits

 5c The natural habits of reason: innate predispositions of the mind

 5d The acquired habits of mind: the intellectual virtues

 5e Supernatural habits

  (1) Grace as an entitative habit of the person

  (2) The infused virtues and the supernatural gifts

  (3) The theological virtues

6. The force of habit in human life

 6a. The automatic or unconscious functioning of habits: addiction

 6b. The contribution of habit to the perfection of character and mind

 6c. Habit and freedom

7. The social significance of habit: habit in relation to law

 

33幸福

1幸福への欲求:その自然性と普遍性

2幸福の理解:定義と神話

 2a幸福な人間のしるし、幸せな生活の特質

 2b幸福な生活の内容:幸福の構成部分、構成要素

 (1)経済状態の良さの幸福への寄与:富、健康、長寿

 (2)喜びと幸福

 (3)幸福に関する美徳

 (4)幸福における名誉の役割

 (5)幸福に対する友情と愛の重要性

 (6)政治的権力や地位が幸福に及ぼす影響

 (7)幸福な生活における知識と知恵の機能:思弁的な活動と熟慮の位置

3倫理の第一原理としての幸福に関する議論:義務と幸福に関する相反する主張

4幸福の追求

 4a人間の幸福への能力:幸福に関する人間の性質の違い

 4b幸福に到達する可能性:死への恐怖と人生の悲観的な見方

5幸福の社会的側面:共通善の教義

 5a他者の幸福や善に関する個人の幸福

 5b国家の福祉に関する個人の幸福:政府と各形態の政府に関する幸福

6神々や来世に関する人間の幸福

7一時的な幸福と永遠の幸福の区別

 7a原罪の影響:自然な幸福を達成するための、神の恵みの不可欠性

 7b一時的な幸福の不完全さ:自然な欲望を満足させることの失敗

 7c永遠の至福:人間の幸福の完成

  (1)至福のビジョン

  (2)祝福された者の喜び:聖者の交わり

  (3)地獄行きを宣告された者の惨めさ

 7d神の至福

 

33 Happiness

「Great Books 1」p537-538

1.The desire for happiness: its naturalness and universality

2. The understanding of happiness: definitions and myths

 2a. The marks of a happy man, the quality of a happy life

 2b. The content of a happy life: the parts or constituents of happiness

  (1) The contribution of the goods of fortune to happiness: wealth, health, longevity

  (2) Pleasure and happiness

  (3) Virtue in relation to happiness

  (4) The role of honor in happiness

  (5) The importance of friendship and love for happiness

  (6) The effect of political power or status on happiness

  (7) The function of knowledge and wisdom in the happy life: the place of speculative activity and contemplation

3. The argument concerning happiness as a first principle of morality: the conflicting claims of duty and happiness

4. The pursuit of happiness

 4a. Man's capacity for happiness: differences in human nature with respect to happiness

 4b. The attainability of happiness: the fear of death and the tragic view of human life

5. The social aspects of happiness: the doctrine of the common good

 5a. The happiness of the individual in relation to the happiness or good of other men

 5b. The happiness of the individual in relation to the welfare of the state: happiness in relation to government and diverse forms of government

6. The happiness of men in relation to the gods or the afterlife

7. The distinction between temporal and eternal happiness

 7a. The effects of original sin: the indispensability of divine grace for the attainment of natural happiness

 7b. The imperfection of temporal happiness: its failure to satisfy natural desire

 7c. Eternal beatitude: the perfection of human happiness

   (1) The beatific vision

   (2) The joy of the blessed: the communion of saints

   (3) The misery of the damned

 7d. The beatitude of God

 

34歴史

1知識、文学としての歴史:その種類と区分;詩、神話、哲学、科学との違い

2歴史の啓蒙と教訓:精神の教育と人間行動の指導における役割

3歴史の記述:研究と叙述;詩の影響

 3a事実の決定と選択:歴史的データの分類

 3b歴史的事実の説明と解釈:歴史家の因果関係に対する扱い

4歴史の哲学

 4a歴史的過程における因果関係の理論

 (1)運命や自由、必然性や運の選択

 (2)歴史における物質的な力:経済的、物理的、地理的要因

 (3)精神の発展としての世界史:歴史の弁証法の段階

 (4)歴史における個人の役割:偉人、英雄、指導者

 4b歴史的変化の法則とパターン:循環、進歩、進化

 4c時代の政治と文化を条件づけるものとしての時代の精神

5歴史の神学

 5a神や神々と人類の歴史との関係:神の摂理

 5b神の世界と人間の世界:教会と国家

 

34 History

「Great Books 1」p554

1.History as knowledge and as literature: its kinds and divisions; its distinction from poetry, myth, philosophy, and science

2.The light and lesson of history: its role in the education of the mind and in the guidance of human conduct

3. The writing of history: research and narration; the influence of poetry

 3a. The determination and choice of fact: the classification of historical data

 3b. The explanation or interpretation of historic fact: the historian's treatment of causes

4. The philosophy of history

 4a. Theories of causation in the historical process

  (1) The alternatives of fate or freedom, necessity or chance

  (2) Material forces in history: economic, physical, and geographic factors

  (3) World history as the development of Spirit: the stages of the dialectic of history

  (4) The role of the individual in history: the great man, hero, or leader

 4b. The laws and patterns of historical change: cycles, progress, evolution

 4c. The spirit of the time as conditioning the politics and culture of a period

5. The theology of history

 5a. The relation of the gods or God to human history: the dispensations of providence

 5b. The city of God and the city of man; church and state

 

35名誉

1名誉と名声の関係:賞賛と評判

2個人の生活における名誉と名声

 2a名誉と恥の感覚:善への忠誠

 2b欲望の対象としての、また美徳と幸福の要因としての名誉:お世辞、見せかけ、模倣

 2c正当な自尊心としての名誉:寛大さや適切なプライド

 2d不滅性の一形態としての名誉や名声

 2e友情の誓いとしての名誉:社会的に対等な人間の間の名誉の規範

3名誉や名声の社会的実現

 3a共同体における善人や偉人に対する、共同体の反応

 3b名誉や名声の条件と、不名誉や悪名の原因

4政治共同体と政府における名誉

 4a国家の組織における原則としての名誉:名誉政治と君主制

 4b国家の組織における名誉の尺度:名誉の公正な分配

 4c政治的手法としての名誉:賞賛、威信、世論の利用

5名誉、名声、英雄的行為

 5a英雄的行為の動機としての名誉

 5b英雄崇拝:指導者の賞賛

 5c戦争と平和における英雄的行為の理由

 5d歴史における英雄の役割の役割

6栄光の概念:名誉と名声からの区別

 6a神の栄光:神の栄光のしるしと賛美

 6b天使、聖人、殉教者の七光

 

35 Honor

「Great Books 1」p568

1.The relation of honor and fame: praise and reputation

2.Honor and fame in the life of the individual

 2a. The sense of honor and of shame: loyalty to the good

 2b. Honor as an object of desire and as a factor in virtue and happiness: flattery, imitation, or emulation

 2c. Honor as due self-esteem: magnanimity or proper pride

 2d. Honor or fame as a mode of immortality

 2e. Honor as the pledge of friendship: the codes of honor among social equals

3. The social realization of honor and fame

 3a. The reaction of the community to its good or great men

 3b. The conditions of honor or fame and the causes of dishonor or infamy

4. Honor in the political community and in government

 4a. Honor as a principle in the organization of the state: timocracy and monarchy

 4b. The scale of honor in the organization of the state: the just distribution of honors

 4c. Honor as a political technique: the uses of praise, prestige, public opinion

5. Honor, fame, and the heroic

 5a. Honor as a motivation of heroism

 5b. Hero-worship: the exaltation of leaders

 5c. The occasions of heroism in war and peace

 5d. The estimation of the role of the hero in history

6. The idea of glory: its distinction from honor and fame

 6a. The glory of God: the signs and the praise of the divine glory

 6b. The reflected glory of angels, saints, and martyrs

 

36仮説

1弁証法の過程における仮説の使用

2哲学における仮説的推論と仮説的構築

3数学の基礎:公準、仮定

4科学における仮説の役割

 4a理論、暫定的な仮定、虚構、具体化

 4b仮説の目的:現象部分の除去;予測の定式化

 4c仮説構築における基準としての一貫性、シンプルさ、美しさ

 4d検証のタスク:仮説の複数性;実験;仮説の検証

5仮言命題と仮言三段論法:仮言的と定言的の区別

 

36 Hypothesis

「Great Books 1」p584

1. The use of hypotheses in the process of dialectic

2. Hypothetical reasoning and hypothetical constructions in philosophy

3. The foundations of mathematics: postulates, assumptions

4. The role of hypotheses in science

 4a. Theories, provisional assumptions, fictions, reifications

 4b. The purpose of hypotheses: saving the appearances; the formulation of predictions

 4c. Consistency, simplicity, and beauty as standards in the construction of hypotheses

 4d. The task of verification: the plurality of hypotheses; the experimental; testing of hypotheses

5. Hypothetical propositions and syllogisms: the distinction between the hypothetical and the categorical

 

37アイデア

1アイデアの教義

 1a思考や知識の対象としてのアイデア、またはアイデア間の関係:永遠の形としてのアイデア

 1b精神がそれによって認知し思考するものとしてのイデアや概念

 1c感覚経験や残余のデータとしてのアイデア

 1d理性の純粋な概念としてのアイデア規定の原理

 1e超人間的な知性や精神の秩序におけるアイデア:永遠の範型と原型;神の心の形態

 1f明確な存在と概念の統一としてのアイデア:絶対的アイデア

2人間精神におけるアイデアの起源と由来

 2aアイデアの注入:神の啓蒙

 2bアイデアの天からの賦与と保持:感覚、記憶、経験による精神の生得的な内容や構造の活性化

 2c知覚や直観によるアイデアの獲得:理解の直接的な対象としての単純なアイデアや形式

 2dアイデアの源泉としての反省:自分の行動や内容に対する熟慮

 2e感覚的印象の想起によるアイデアの発生:感覚のイメージ

 2f感覚の素材の加工によるアイデアの生産:概念の想像的な構築、あるいは単純なアイデアから複雑なアイデアを形成すること

 2g感覚経験からのアイデアの抽出:精神の最初の活動としての抽象化:抽象化の程度

 2h理性の3種の三段論法による超越的なアイデアの導出

3客観的な参照項に基づいたアイデアの区分

 3aイデアについてのアイデアとは区別されるものについてのアイデア:第一志向と第二志向

 3b適切な、または不適切なアイデア:曖昧で混乱したアイデアに比べて明確で明瞭なアイデア

 3c現実的な、幻想的な、または架空のアイデア実在の欠如と幻想

4アイデアの論理

 4aアイデアや概念の言語的表現:用語

 4b用語の分類:様々な種類の用語の使用における問題

 (1)具体的な用語と抽象的な用語

 (2)特殊な用語と普遍的な用語

 (3)特定の用語と一般的な用語:最低種と最高類

 (4)一義的な用語と類推的な用語

 4c用語の相関、対立、順序

5思考の過程におけるアイデアや概念

 5a概念と判断:主語と述語としての用語の区別;主語と述語の種類

 5b推論における用語の配列と順序

 5c理性のアイデア弁証法的な使用

 5d学習の段階における概念の順序:進むほど一般的でなくなる

 5eアイデアの関連付け、比較、区別:思考や意識の流れ

6アイデアの存在の実在性

 6a実在と表象的存在の区別、または物事とアイデアの区別:象徴としてのアイデア、または精神の表象

 6b自然と精神の存在に関するアイデアの性質と存在

 6cアイデアとその対象の一致:一致における妥当性の基準

 6d真実性の基準としてのアイデアにおける明確さと明瞭さ

 6e起源の基準:アイデアの起源を参照することによるアイデアの真実性や意味の検証

 6f単純な理解、感覚、概念の真偽:判断や主張の真偽とは対照的な

 

37 idea

「Great Books 1」p597-598

1.Doctrines of idea

 1a. Ideas, or relations between ideas, as objects of thought or knowledge: the ideas as eternal forms

 1b. Ideas or conceptions as that by which the mind thinks or knows

 1c. Ideas as the data of sense-experience or their residues

 1d. Ideas as the pure concepts of reason: regulative principles

 1e. Ideas in the order of suprahuman intelligence or spirit: the eternal exemplars and archetypes; the modes of the divine mind

 1f. Idea as the unity of determinate existence and concept: the Absolute Idea

2. The origin or derivation of ideas in the human mind

 2a. The infusion of ideas: divine illumination

 2b. The innate endowment or retention of ideas: the activation of the mind's native content or structure by sense, by memory, or by experience

 2c. The acquirement of ideas by perception or intuition: simple ideas or forms as direct objects of the understanding

 2d. Reflection as a source of ideas: the mind's consideration of its own acts or content

 2e. The genesis of ideas by the recollection of sense impressions: the images of sense

 2f. The production of ideas by the reworking of the materials of sense: the imaginative

construction of concepts or the formation of complex from simple ideas

 2g. The abstraction of ideas from sense-experience: the concept as the first act of the mind; the grades of abstraction

 2h. The derivation of transcendental ideas from the three syllogisms of reason

3. The division of ideas according to their objective reference

 3a. Ideas about things distinguished from ideas about ideas: the distinction between first and second intentions

 3b. Adequate and inadequate ideas: clear and distinct ideas as compared with obscure and confused ideas

 3c. Real and fantastic or fictional ideas: negations and chimeras

4. The logic of ideas

 4a. The verbal expression of ideas or concepts: terms

 4b. The classification of terms: problems in the use of different kinds of terms

  (1) Concrete and abstract terms

  (2) Particular and universal terms

  (3) Specific and generic terms: infimae species and summa genera

  (4) Univocal and analogical terms

 4c. The correlation, opposition, and order of terms

5.Ideas or concepts in the process of thought

 5a. Concept and judgment: the division of terms as subjects and predicates; kinds of subjects and predicates

 5b. The position and sequence of terms in reasoning

 5c. The dialectical employment of the ideas of reason

 5d The order of concepts in the stages of learning: the more and the less general

 5e The association, comparison, and discrimination of ideas: the stream of thought or consciousness

6. The being and the truth of ideas

 6a. The distinction between real and intentional existence, between thing and idea: ideas as symbols, or intentions of the mind

 6b. The nature and being of ideas in relation to the nature and being of the mind

 6c. The agreement between an idea and its object: the criterion of adequacy in correspondence

 6d. Clarity and distinctness in ideas as criteria of their truth

 6e. The criterion of genesis: the test of an idea’s truth or meaning by reference to its origin

 6f. The truth and falsity of simple apprehensions, sensations, or conceptions: contrasted with truth and falsity of judgements or assertions

 

38不死

1不死の欲望:死の恐怖

2不死の知識:個人の生存に対する賛否

3不死の信仰

 3a不死の自明視:不死への信仰の実質的な基盤

 3b不死の啓示:宗教的信仰における信条としての不死

4不死の倫理的な重要性:報酬と制裁

5来世の概念

 5a魂の転生:生まれ変わり

 5b身体から分離した魂の状態

 5c魂の判断

 5d浄化の過程:煉獄の様子

 5e呪われた者の国:地獄

 5f祝福された者の国:天国

 5g身体の復活

6非人格的な生存の教義

 6a繁殖を通じた不死:種の永続化

 6b永続的な名声:記憶における生存

 6c真実、アイデア、愛の永遠性への参加

 

38 Immortality

「Great Books 1」p617

1 The desire for immortality: the fear of death

2 The knowledge of immortality: arguments for and against personal survival

3 Belief in immortality

 3a The postulation of immortality: practical grounds for belief in immortality

 3b The revelation of immortality: immortality as an article of religious faith

4 The moral significance of immortality: rewards and sanctions

5 Conceptions of the afterlife

 5a The transmigration of souls: reincarnation

 5b The state of soul apart from body

 5c The judgement of souls

 5d The process of purification: the state of purgatory

 5e The state of the damned: hell

 5f The state of the blessed: heaven

 5g The resurrection of the body

6 Doctrines of impersonal survival

 6a Immortality through offspring: the perpetuation of the species

 6b Enduring fame: survival in the memory

 6c Participation in the eternity of truth, ideas, or love

 

39帰納

1帰納の理論:特殊からの一般化

 1a帰納と直観:推論や論証との関係

 1b帰納的な推論:帰納的、または演繹的証明に関する問題

2帰納の条件や源泉:記憶、経験、実験

3帰納の所産:定義、公理、原理、法則

4議論における帰納の利用

 4a弁証法的な帰納:議論の前提の確保

 4b修辞的な帰納:説得の過程における例からの推論

5科学の発展における帰納の役割:実験的帰納と枚挙的帰納の方法

 

39 Induction

「Great Books 1」p630

1. The theory of induction: generalization from particulars

 1a. Induction and intuition: their relation to reasoning or demonstration

 1b. Inductive reasoning: the issue concerning inductive and deductive proof

2. The conditions or sources of induction: memory, experience, experiment

3. The products of induction: definitions, axioms, principles, laws

4. The use of induction in argument

 4a. Dialectical induction: securing assumptions for disputation

 4b. Rhetorical induction: inference from example in the process of persuasion

5. The role of induction in the development of science: the methods of experimental and enumerative induction

 

40無限

1無限の一般理論

 1a有限なものと無限なもの:測定されたものと不確定的なもの

 1b存在と量における無限:実無限と可能無限;形式的無限と実質的無限

2論理的順序における無限

 2a負の項と不定の項の無限

 2b否定的判断と無限の判断の区別

 2c分析と推論における無限後退

3量における無限:無限の大きさと多さ

 3a数:除算と加算の無限大

 3b連続量の無限分解可能性:無限小;取り尽くし法と限界の理論

 3c漸近線と平行線の無限

 3d無限の空間、あるいは有限でありながら無限の空間

 3e時間と運動の無限の持続

4物質の無限

 4a物質の無限の量と大きさ:真に無限の物体の問題

 4b物質の無限の分割可能性:原子や素粒子に関する問題

 4c物質の無限の可能性:第一物質や形のない物質の概念

5世界における無限

 5a無限の事物と無限の種類

 5b原因の数

6人間の本質における有限と無限

 6a欲望と意志の無限:人間の能力の限界

 6b知性の無限:無限についての人間の知識

7神の無限

 7a神の無限の存在や本質

 7b神の無限の力

 7c神の無限の善性と愛

 7d神の無限の知識

 

40 Infinity

「Great Books 1」p641-642

1. The general theory of infinity

 1a. The definite and indefinite: the measured and the indeterminate

 1b. The infinite in being and quantity: the actual and potential infinite; the formal and the material infinite

2. Infinity in the logical order

 2a. The infinity of negative and indefinite terms

 2b. The distinction between negative and infinite judgements

 2c. Infinite regression in analysis and reasoning

3. The infinite in quantity: infinite magnitudes and multitudes

 3a. Number: the infinite of division and addition

 3b. The infinite divisibility of continuous quantities: the infinitesimal; the method of exhaustion and the theory of limits

 3c. The infinity of asymptotes and parallels

 3d. The infinite extent of space or space as finite yet unbounded

 3e. The infinite duration of time and motion

4. The infinity of matter

 4a. The infinite quantity or extent of matter: the problem of an actually infinite body

 4b. The infinite divisibility of matter: the issue concerning atoms or elementary particles

 4c. The infinite potentiality of matter: the conception of prime or formless matter

5. Infinity in the world

 5a. The infinite number of things and the infinite number of kinds

 5b. The number of causes

6. The finite and the infinite in the nature of man

 6a. The infinity of desire and will: the limits of human capacity

 6b. The infinity of the intellect: man's knowledge of the infinite

7. The infinity of God

 7a. The infinite being or essence of God

 7b. The infinite power of God

 7c. God's infinite goodness and love

 7d. God's infinite knowledge